buy flagyl in canada colchicine costochondritis what is arrow meloxicam 15 mg pain reliever can you take vicodin with carvedilol doxy azithromycin metoprolol 200 mg side effects chances if.having birth defects with doxycycline captopril 50 mg pret amoxicillin rash how much does propranolol cost uk female viagra pill levitra buying que es la cytotec como reconocer cytotec original zovirax ointment cold sores is azythromicin similar to bactrim strongest prescription obesity dopemine montelukast 10 brand name price compar cytotec 500 miligramas flomax bustine ogni quante ore buspar 7.5 when to drink alcohol after valtrex could taking bupropion xl cause a missed period what std does metronidazole treat flagyl odor body fluconazole on birth control fake viagra made in india acyclovir 400 mg side effects syp.zovirax manufacture wellbutrin 150 mg xl montelukast accord 5 mg alkohol buy amoxicillin 500mg no prescription uk erythromycin price for acne generic kamagra pills obat voltaren dan acyclovir medley clomid mirtazapine does it have estrogen in it cost prometrium 100mg when dose prednisone have to be tapered prednisone taper dose schedule does fexofenadine interact with oral contraceptives api fish antibiotics price india prednisone side effects in dogsfastbreathing metronidazole 400 for dogs uk metformin cost canada depo provera 100mg elavil and 5 htp cheap viagra next day delivery uk fluconazole tablet ip 150 mg cipla propranolol 60 mg er flagyl pill as a termination pill what not drink wellbutrin xl 300mg prednisone in cats can i take ampiclox with chloramphenicol problem with take two cialis 5mg cuanto me salen cada pastillas arthrotec misoprostol doxycycline hyclate can suspend menstruation how do i cut down 2.5mg zyprexa validita sildenafil sandoz 100 mg drug prednisone 50 mg tab puppy crazymeds baclofen prozac 60 mg daily buy generic clomid uk order viagra tablets ok to take paracetomel with quetiapine para que sirve capriwen captopril 25mg amoxicillin caps toxic dose is tamoxifen illegal in canada cara pakai chromalux misoprostol how soon does azithromycin 1g take effect flagyl 400mg tabletes generic mobic side effects lamisil tab 125mg proventil hfa 90 mcg generic obat lioresal 10 mg prospect singulair 4mg granules xenical orlistat buy online usa over the counter substitute for flomax how long to take finasteride aturan pakai nexium is 30 mg of remeron too much metronidazole gel clumpy discharge singulair okay to crush dexamethasone 500 micrograms diferencia entre citalopram 10 mg con escitalopram 10mg do i need to declare viagra at mexican customs acyclovir syrup price flagyl injection price usa glimepiride 1mg tab estrace 2mg price green amoxil tablets dicounted generic clomid online how to lessen cialis side effects premarin foals oregon wellbutrin 2 weeks taking lexapro and drinking alcohol sleep walking cabergoline online pharmacy zinc pyrithione vs nizoral for dandruff albuterol oral inhaler buy cipro xl rash treatment benazepril price at walmart topamax 50 mg twice a day prazosin hydrochloride 2mg legal online viagra nolvadex without steroids lexapro 20mg zoloft buy amoxicillin visa getting off topiramate benazepril liquid uk precio del famciclovir en mexico demadex 20 mg tab price of nizoral cream buy cipro online 500mg best ketoconazole shampoo without saw palmetto and sls zofran on 3 year old allegra pill 93 can you shoot metoprolol can i go from 50 mg zoloft to 100 mg in one day obat elavil can i stay on lexapro and klonopin for anxiety cong dung antibiotic augmentin antibiotico 725 125 augmentin 1 gm cost price fluconazole dosage thrush ciproxin 500 mg en espanol potency of old viagra tablets verapamil costco 600 ml sertraline can i take chramphnicol after 5hrs of taken amoxil amoxicillin makes me sick metoprolol tartrate 12.5mg zyvoxid extemporaneous prepration can you smoke6 hours after taking flagyl long term effects of terbinafine amoxicillin dosage liquid for adults can you take doxycycline with food mobic 415 ranbaxy valsartan complaints doxycycline hyclate gas can you get high off of topamax 100mg accutane online reviews doxycycline long term use birth control amoxicillin 250 suspension doseage for adult canada cialis cost lexapro street use metronidazole 125 mg if stomach badly motion can take flagyl costo augmentin compresse side effects of taking strattera and rispedone ciprobay xr 1000 vagina infections side effects of taking prozac and criatine cytotec como se toma y q tan peligrosa es montelukast levocetirizine zykast paxil price in india acyclovir 5 ointment price finasteride 5 mg tablets south african misoprostol atarax 2 mg jarabe prospecto benicar and lupus mayo clinic crestor and atorvastatin mode of action does benadryl help gabapentin withdrawals modifikasi nexium otc puppy amoxicillin where to buy antibiotic in japan cipros obat jerawat cymbalta price uk isotretinoin prescription australia ciprofloxacin chlamydia dose francais remeron cost walmart inderal 10 mg efectos secundarios will phenergan stay in pumped milk can you buy viagra online canada caverject with cialis finasteride cost walgreens why is etizolam propranolol hydrochloride tablets used cialis side effects leg pain meloxicam 15 mg tablet cost venden en guatemala mifepristona y misoprostolcytotec can you take motrin after a 6 day medrol prednisone fluconazole drink alcohol cheapest levitra online that take mastercard diet pills that contain tiratricol cymbalta generic alternatives indocin 25 can you use acyclovir with doxcycycline viagra pricing india accutane 20mg a day is atarax a steroid zyban for sale online buy esomeprazole 20 mg online uk how fast should diflucan work lamisil cream yeast infection generic lexapro 5mg purchase viagra canada meloxicam le servira a mi perro para la garganta prednisone 4 mg and alcohol duo decadron y su efectividad does lamisil work better than lotrimin amoxicillin clavulanate 500mg for std obat isoptin zoloft 6.25mg bactrim and 6mp amoxicillin trihydrate 100 mg plavix adalah fexofenadine hcl 60 mg dosage can i buy viagra in amsterdam netherlands metoprolol tartrate 50 mg tablets side effects atarax 10mg hydroxyzine hydrochloride accidentally took 80 mg of lisinopril energizing antidepressant finasteride buy online india what antibiotic is yellow 825 side effects of lisinopril nolvadex australia legal donny osmond depression medication does bactrim cause gastritis 42 on low dose clomid para que sirve el piroxicam gel how to take clomiphene 50mg plavix and foods what can i take as a otc viagra gabapentin in spanish captopril 3 vezes ao dia azithromycin family and mechanism of action fluconazole three day pill sildenafil effervescent tablets hindi does warfarin come in 8mg tablets medroxyprogesterone 10mg price ubat cytotec patient assistance wellbutrin xl glaxosmithskline fluconazole 3a4 does quetiapine come in a depot mylan4250 doxepin 50 mg enough dies walgreens carry generic flagyl brufen 400 same as naproxen 750 mg sandoz famciclovir 125 mg efectos medicina gabapentin 300 inflamatory hip pain taking 5 mg prednisone baclofen and bupropion digoxin pulse 60 levitra price went up misoprostol precio en tacna ivermectin bed bugs uk atomoxetine in urine citalopram 20mg et celebrex voltaren 50mg diclofenac natr corega at walmart septra 160 cialis maximum dose is montelukast sod 10 mg a steroid online pharmacy cheap viagra cheapest propecia finasteride how long does inderal la take to work coreg 6.2 mg for sale ciprodex in sinus solution singulair price canada is taking anivert and amitriptyline togethe ok can zoloft cause urine to smell like namonia ordering tadalafil with paypal length of side effects of zoloft kamagra gold best price best price on propecia generic generic plavix canada pharmacy tadalafil 5 celebrex 200 mg for sale can my dog take melatonin and metronidazole together macs acyclovir cream for genital herpes amoxil 875 prednisone dosage treatment hives can lamisil be used instead of ertaczo plavix generic in usa manufacturers of lisinopril 10 mg can i die takeing sertraline 50mg 213 buy flagyl can i mix amoxicillin in formula why am i allergic to bactrim ds zoloft 9 months oral jelly kamagra in urdu buy piroxicam uk doxepin ibuprofen wechselwirkung gabapentin 600 mg overdose buy seroquel online cheap change from lamictal to topamax glimepiride 2 mg and metformin 500 mcg will buspirone hcl 15 mg show up in a drug test plavix generic company lisinopril solution propranolol mg for test anxiety how much paroxetine cost in euros valtrex for laser hair removal generic plavix coupon buy isotretinoin gel can quinine effect lisinopril isotretinoin tabletes naprosyn teva 149 anastrozole philippines montelukast price walmart citalopram uk nhs cytotec para 4 semanas misoprostol venta panama lexapro withdrawal after 4 months amoxicillin 875 dosage for puppies can a dog have human amoxicillin liquid generic lisinopril name kegunaan obat zoter acyclovir how much is the flagyl oral avodart 30cps molli use dos misoprostol 200 a la 4 semanas y sangro poco digoxin dose mg iv push ciprofloxacin 500 mg doses zithromax antibiotic powder amlodipine besylate skin rash side effects para que sirve metronidazole 500 mg prednisone dosage 3 times a day my doctor gave me 500mg amoxicillin for chlamydia tamsulosin hearing loss proscar after 6 months high off amoxicillin plavix mg glucophage 1gm dog ate 4mg of warfarin dosis de cytotec para dilatar kamagra 100 mg jel fiyat?± voltaren 1000 per mal di gola price of propecia cialis smoking weed cytotec price cebu cost of isotretinoin treatment uk usual bactrim dosing for uti schedule for tapering prednisone 20mg how long does .4 mg. of tamsulosin last a cosa serveil plavix 75 mg buy nizoral shampoo in india phenergan 3 year old antihistamine ireland feldene dor nas costas gabapentin 300 mg cap amneal benicar generic for ed can i take 20 mg of prednisone for bronchitis estrace with or without food prednisone 60 mg daily side effects dexamethasone 12 mg salep mata erlamycetin chloramphenicol untuk bayi ivermectin tablets for dogs uk diflucan 150 mg over the counter thyroxine heel pain clopidogrel 300 mg spc pityrosporum folliculitis treatment fluconazole metformine hydrochloride 500 mg au maroc viagra in old age people who got high off baclofen telmisartan prices compare is it ok to eat grapefruit while taking zithromax cytotec forum crizzy esomeprazole buy online lisinopril 5 mg tablet price what does ciprofloxacino do cheapest propecia pills use of sildenafil citrate 100mg zithromax indonesia dr reddy dutasteride can u take wellbutrin and htp together doxycycline liquid for horses ireland fluconazole 150mg capsules side effects cardura withdrawal symptoms percentage of success of clomiphene 100mg tablet doxazosin mesylate 8 mg reputable pharmicies for generic viagra mag3 renal scan with lasix washout cpt code over the counter lasix for dogs 4 semanas de gestacion cuantas dosis de cytotec tomar vilnius viagra endep 10 amitriptyline hydrochloride 10mg metronidazole 500 mg bid 7 days cpt code for adminstration of phenergan 25 mg difference between lisinopril and clonidine gabapentin 600 mg used for citalopram hydrobromide 20mg uk provera 5 mg for 10 days sildenafil teva 100mg review generic viagra compare cialis pills voltaren emulgel max vena singulair 10 mg espanol contenido de etodolac 300 mg effects of levaquin on tendons provera 200mg and bleeding

St Cyril of Alexandria

June 27
by EWTN | Source:

St Cyril of Alexandria

Doctor of the Church. St. Cyril has his feast in the Western Church on the 28th of January; in the Greek Menaea it is found on the 9th of June, and (together with St. Athanasius) on the 18th of January.

He seems to have been of an Alexandrian family and was the son of the brother of Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria; if he is the Cyril addressed by Isidore of Pelusium in Ep. xxv of Bk. I, he was for a time a monk.

He accompanied Theophilus to Constantinople when that bishop held the "Synod of the Oak" in 402 and deposed St. John Chrysostom. Theophilus died 15 Oct., 412, and on the 18th Cyril was consecrated his uncle's successor, but only after a riot between his supporters and those of his rival Timotheus. Socrates complains bitterly that one of his first acts was to plunder and shut the churches of the Novatians. He also drove out of Alexandria the Jews, who had formed a flourishing community there since Alexander the Great. But they had caused tumults and had massacred the Christians, to defend whom Cyril himself assembled a mob.

This may have been the only possible defence, since the Prefect of Egypt, Orestes, who was very angry at the expulsion of the Jews was also jealous of the power of Cyril, which certainly rivaled his own. Five hundred monks came down from Nitria to defend the patriarch. In a disturbance which arose, Orestes was wounded in the head by a stone thrown by a monk named Ammonius. The prefect had Ammonius tortured to death, and the young and fiery patriarch honoured his remains for a time as those of a martyr.

The Alexandians were always riotous as we learn from Socrates (VII, vii) and from St. Cyril himself (Hom. for Easter, 419). In one of these riots, in 422, the prefect Callistus was killed, and in another was committed the murder of a female philosopher Hypatia, a highly-respected teacher of neo-Platoism, of advanced age and (it is said) many virtues. She was a friend of Orestes, and many believed that she prevented a reconciliation between the prefect and patriarch. A mob led by a lector, named Peter, dragged her to a church and tore her flesh with potsherds till she died. This brought great disgrace, says Socrates, on the Church of Alexandria and on its bishop; but a lector at Alexandria was not a cleric (Scr., V, xxii), and Socrates does not suggest that Cyril himself was to blame. Damascius, indeed, accuses him, but he is a late authority and a hater of Christians.

Theophilus, the persecutor of Chrysostom, had not the privilege of communion with Rome from that saint's death, in 406, until his own. For some years Cyril also refused to insert the name of St. Chrysostom in the diptychs of his Church, in spite of the requests of Chrysostom's supplanter, Atticus. Later he seems to have yielded to the representations of his spiritual father, Isisdore of Pelusium (Isid., Ep. I, 370). Yet even after the Council of Ephesus that saint still found something to rebuke in him on this matter (Ep. I, 310). But at last Cyril seems to have long since been trusted by Rome.

It was in the winter of 427-28 that the Antiochene Nestorius became Patriarch of Constantinople. His heretical teaching soon became known to Cyril. Against him Cyril taught the use of the term Theotokus in his Paschal letter for 429 and in a letter to the monks of Egypt. A correspondence with Nestorius followed, in a more moderate tone than might have been expected. Nestorius sent his sermons to Pope Celestine, but he received no reply, for the latter wrote to St. Cyril for further information.

Rome had taken the side of St. John Chrysostom against Theophilus, but had neither censured the orthodoxy of the latter, nor consented to the patriarchal powers exercised by the bishops of Constantinople. To St. Celestine Cyril was not only the first prelate of the East, he was also the inheritor of the traditions of Athanasius and Peter.

The pope's confidence was not misplaced. Cyril had learnt prudence. Peter had attempted unsuccessfully to appoint a Bishop of Constantinople; Theophilus had deposed another. Cyril, though in this case Alexandria was in the right, does not act in his own name, but denounces Nestorius to St. Celestine, since ancient custom, he says, persuaded him to bring the matter before the pope. He relates all that had occurred, and begs Celestine to decree what he sees fit (typosai to dokoun--a phrase which Dr. Bright chooses to weaken into "formulate his opinion"), and communicate it also to the Bishops of Macedonia and of the East (i.e. the Antiochene Patriarchate).

The pope's reply was of astonishing severity. He had already commissioned Cassian to write his well known treatise on the Incarnation. He now summoned a council (such Roman councils had somewhat the office of the modern Roman Congregations), and dispatched a letter to Alexandria with enclosures to Constantinople, Philippi, Jerusalem, and Antioch.

Cyril is to take to himself the authority of the Roman See and to admonish Nestorius that unless he recants within ten days from the receipt of this ultimatum, he is separated from "our body" (the popes of the day had the habit of speaking of the other churches as the members, of which they are the head; the body is, of course the Catholic Church). If Nestorius does not submit, Cyril is to "provide for" the Church of Constantinople.

Such a sentence of excommunication and deposition is not to be confounded with the mere withdrawal of actual communion by the popes from Cyril himself at an earlier date, from Theophilus, or, in Antioch, from Flavian or Meletius. It was the decree Cyril has asked for. As Cyril had twice written to Nestorius, his citation in the name of the pope is to be counted as a third warning, after which no grace is to be given.

St. Cyril summoned a council of his suffragans, and composed a letter which were appended twelve propositions for Nestorius to anathematize. The epistle was not conciliatory, and Nestorius may well have been taken aback. The twelve propositions did not emanate from Rome, and were not equally clear; one or two of them were later among the authorities invoked by the Monophysite heretics in their own favour.

Cyril was the head of the rival theological school to that of Antioch, where Nestorius had studied, and was the hereditary rival of the Constantinopolitan would-be patriarch. Cyril wrote also to John, Patriarch of Antioch, informing him of the facts, and insinuating that if John should support his old friend Nestorius, he would find himself isolated over against Rome, Macedonia, and Egypt.
John took the hint and urged Nestorius to yield. Meanwhile, in Constantinople itself large numbers of the people held aloof from Nestorius, and the Emperor Theodosius II had been persuaded to summon a general council to meet at Ephesus.

The imperial letters were dispatched 19 November, whereas the bishops sent by Cyril arrived at Constantinople only on 7 December. Nestorius, somewhat naturally, refused to accept the message sent by his rival, and on the 13th and 14th of December preached publicly against Cyril as a calumniator, and as having used bribes (which was probably as true as it was usual); but he declared himself willing to use the word Theotokos. These sermons he sent to John of Antioch, who preferred them to the anathematizations of Cyril.

Nestorius, however, issued twelve propositions with appended anathemas. If Cyril's propositions might be might be taken to deny the two natures in Christ, those of Nestorius hardly veiled his belief in two distinct persons. Theodoret urged John yet further, and wrote a treatise against Cyril, to which the latter replied with some warmth. He also wrote an "Answer" in five books to the sermons of Nestorius.

As the fifteenth-century idea of an oecumenical council superior to the pope had yet to be invented, and there was but one precedent for such an assembly, we need not be surprised that St. Celestine welcomed the initiative of the emperor, and hoped for peace through the assembly. (See EPHESUS, COUNCIL OF.) Nestorius found the churches of Ephesus closed to him, when he arrived with the imperial commissioner, Count Candidian, and his own friend, Count Irenaeus. Cyril came with fifty of his bishops. Palestine, Crete, Asia Minor, and Greece added their quotient. But John of Antioch and his suffragans were delayed.

Cyril may have believed, rightly or wrongly, that John did not wish to be present at the trial of his friend Nestorius, or that he wished to gain time for him, and he opened the council without John, on 22 June, in spite of the request of sixty-eight bishops for a delay. This was an initial error, which had disastrous results.

The legates from Rome had not arrived, so that Cyril had no answer to the letter he had written to Celestine asking "whether the holy synod should receive a man who condemned what it preached, or, because the time of delay had elapsed, whether the sentence was still in force". Cyril might have presumed that the pope, in agreeing to send legates to the council, intended Nestorius to have a complete trial, but it was more convenient to assume that the Roman ultimatum had not been suspended, and that the council was bound by it. He therefore took the place of president, not only as the highest of rank, but also as still holding the place of Celestine, though he cannot have received any fresh commission from the pope. Nestorius was summoned, in order that he might explain his neglect of Cyril's former monition in the name of the pope. He refused to receive the four bishops whom the council sent to him. Consequently nothing remained but formal procedure.

For the council was bound by the canons to depose Nestorius for contumacy, as he would not appear, and by the letter of Celestine to condemn him for heresy, as he had not recanted. The correspondence between Rome, Alexandria, and Constantinople was read, some testimonies where read from earlier writers show the errors of Nestorius. The second letter of Cyril to Nestorius was approved by all the bishops.

The reply of Nestorius was condemned. No discussion took place. The letter of Cyril and the ten anathemaizations raised no comment. All was concluded at one sitting. The council declared that it was "of necessity impelled" by the canons and by the letter of Celestine to declare Nestorius deposed and excommunicated. The papal legates, who had been detained by bad weather, arrived on the 10th of July, and they solemnly confirmed the sentence by the authority of St. Peter, for the refusal of Nestorius to appear had made useless the permission which they brought from the pope to grant him forgiveness if he should repent. But meanwhile John of Antioch and his party had arrived on the 26th and 27th of June.

They formed themselves into a rival council of forty-three bishops, and deposed Memnon, Bishop of Ephesus, and St. Cyril, accusing the latter of Apollinarianism and even of Eunomianism. Both parties now appealed to the emperor, who took the amazing decision of sending a count to treat Nestorius, Cyril, and Memnon as being all three lawfully deposed. They were kept in close custody; but eventually the emperor took the orthodox view, though he dissolved the council; Cyril was allowed to return to his diocese, and Nestorius went into retirement at Antioch. Later he was banished to the Great Oasis of Egypt.

Meanwhile Pope Celestine was dead. His successor, St. Sixtus III, confirmed the council and attempted to get John of Antioch to anathematize Nestorius. For some time the strongest opponent of Cyril was Theodoret, but eventually he approved a letter of Cyril to Acacius of Berhoea. John sent Paul, Bishop of Emesa, as his plenipotentiary to Alexandria, and he patched up reconciliation with Cyril.

Though Theodoret still refused to denounce the defence of Nestorius, John did so, and Cyril declared his joy in a letter to John. Isidore of Pelusium was now afraid that the impulsive Cyril might have yielded too much (Ep. i, 334). The great patriarch composed many further treatises, dogmatic letters, and sermons. He died on the 9th or the 27th of June, 444, after an episcopate of nearly thirty-two years.

To read more about the Saint go to:

Saint Cyril of Alexandria (1)

Saint Cyril of Alexandria (2)

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular