clomiphene prescription for men teeth damaged by doxycycline buy generic colchicine online propranolol used recreationally zoloft cured my binge eating erythromycin and high blood pressure periactin for appetite dosage clomiphene citrate dose in pcos montelukast for hives taking multiple viagras augmentin vs doxycycline for sinus infection who should take cymbalta topiramate side effects mayo donde consigo cytotec en cartagena tab.ciproheptadine hcl levothyroxine 519 thyroxine and cough medicine effetto viagra sulle donne neurontin use in bipolar best place buy amaryllis bulbs orlistat fermentado ivermectin 3 mg .de decrease zoloft dosage cheap principen whartisthebestin lisinopril 20 mg cost metronidazole for staph infection paxil taper in where to order kamagra abilify dosage wiki augmentin bloody stool propecia efficacy generic product for orlistat prize in india how many mgs of flagyl kills bv buspar depression forums celebrex vs previcox opinion sobre cialis dexamethasone icd 9 code costochondritis taking citalopram statistics on side effects of levaquin can cymbalta make you gain weight doxycycline 80 mg doses what is difference between neurontin and lyrica doxazosin 16 mg takes viagra and fucks reen clomid zonder voorschrift free albuterol tabs order viagra rx can you die viagra buspirone mb3 555 fluconazole metabolism cyp sertraline 100mg effects torneo basket cipro what is differnce between lexapro and zoloft flomax 0 4mg mr 30 kapsul clomid facial hair cymbalta monthly coupons fluvoxamine dosageen francais facile lisinopril and protonix peut on acheter viagra sans ordonnance en pharmacie buy fluconazole for dog s abilify bonheur can too much wellbutrin cause depression canada viagra with prescription toxic dose of thyroxine tablet forzest prednisone insomnia can lipitor make you pee a lot paxil feeling cold dexamethasone 4 mg dolor de garganta naproxen 600 mg dosage chloromycetin capsulas 250 metformin 500 mg pcos and polyp how to use cytotec for 6 weeks pregnant liquid dapoxetine review does zoloft cause muscle twitching linezolid bone penetration finasteride haar terug taking aspirin with lipitor misoprostol precio en costa rica ciprobay gegen durchfall amoxicillin 2g po bactrim doses for skin infection gabapentin chiari malformation can you buy antibiotics over the counter in puerto rico taux oestradiol pour une fiv naproxen dosing epocrates clomid uk pharmacy femara success over 40 metoprolol ficha tecnica buspirone urinary retention elavil eq and tramadol on line prescription for viagra tamoxifeno y miomas uterinos symptoms of an allergic reaction to bactrim nolvadex and aspirin terbinafine impotence how long do brain zaps last after stopping lexapro naproxen 375 mg street name what is cyproheptadine tablets or c4 antidepresant side effect euphoria hep c lamisil orlistat 120mlg did xenical work for you sertraline 50 mg price uk compare walgreens to walmart for cialis pricing glucophage sr and pernicious anaemia amoxicillin for ghoneria 3.coma.comday tadalafil at a walmart price abilify and drinking alcohol methotrexate and celebrex side effects amoxicillin scarlatina 7 day prednisone propranolol sa 80 mg capsule lawsuit from serious side effects of taking lisinopril azithromycin 500 mg price metronidazole tab 400mg 21 for pregnant women lexapro 10 mg every other day lisinopril for bp is it safe to take azithromycin tablet with cold tablet buy lexapro us induced labor with cytotec erythromycin pertussis prophylaxis dose pharmacokinetics of lasix iv contrast prednisone protocol cheap zyprexa online can lisinopril cause dizziness how much a misoprostol cytotec in the philippines bactrim erythromycin allergy dicyclomine and phenergan proscar msd 72 ventolin diskus 100 cotrimoxazole tab can be taken with fluconazole150 fluconazole online buy thuoc colcrys diflucan for toddlers strattera pronunciation taking yaz and spironolactone together ciprofloxacin injeksi why cant you drink alcohol on oral metronidazole pill metronidazole pills 400 mg celebrex mg per day nolvadex uses in infertility assunzione di clomid cuando dar nexium order levitra overnight mirtazapine 30 mg to 45mg generic lisinopril manufacturers viagra sales online in uk kurus duromine metformin effectiveness of ketoconazole quetiapine fumarate mass spectrum side effects of lexapro in kids is it possible to prevent viagra headaches buy anafranil can a 2 g dose of flagyl cause a yeast infection spironolactone causing tumors does low dose elavil make you gain weight abilify lowest therapeutic dose how much does benicar cost at walmart single lamisil tablet how far apart to take wellbutrin sr metronidazole furazolidone and alcohol compatibility application and dosage of ivermectin on goat and dog clomid cause breast tenderness is viagra over the counter now recovery time viagra paxil cr 25 mg cialis does it help you go longer doxycycline for swollen testicle benicar price us fungsi ketoconazole cream untuk hewan buy stromectol in uk buy doxycycline rx allegra viagra interaction con dostinex se puede tomar alcohol which store i can buy cytotec in malaysia online cialis fast delivery what happens when stop taking metformin acyclovir 800 mg brands in india lamisil cream vulva can prednisone cause a yeast infection zovirax cream and breastfeeding pfizer vs prednisone indomethacin and advil viagra generic medicine metoprolol succinat tad how long do side effects from stopping celexa last spironolactone pcos mechanism generic prozac cost walmart levothyroxine forgot to take side effects of amoxicillin in animals how to.curb alcohol cravings on lexapro is viagra daily expensive fake cialis problems bactrim f plm can 600mg of cytotec terminate a 5wks pregnancy what is lamisilate creme used for easter discount on viagra what is the consequences of taking zinc with thyroxine mini pill medroxyprogesterone mg strattera and gynecomastia take to much viagra what could happen mirtazapine 80 mg what is it used for t gabapentin 300 mg hs lisinopril 20 mg twice a day cymbalta y ibuprofeno elavil 100 mg street value does valtrex come in a liquid form kamagra gold v?lem?ny buy zithromax cream cipro crociera zoloft recommended dose how much valtrex can you take a day nexium 40 mg preis antidepressants safe with tamoxifen tarif nolvadex what is metoprolol medication for linezolid ampolla precio comercial colombia cheap nexium 40 mg 500mg metronidazole side effects zovirax tablety 400 mobicash faisalabad lamisil online uk crush paxil cr clomid and uterine lining too thin lasix ile zayiflama anafranil gain weight bupropion como ansiolitico where to buy viagra on line dutasteride 2.5mg lexapro low libido in men 40 mg lexapro success can an antibiotic make u lightheaded inderal ampolla l cipro syrup lisinopril two times a day misoprostol cucuta wann clomid nehmen albuterol hfa patient assistance online order viagra at malaysia can you take prednisone with nyquil levofloxacin msds tamoxifen gynecomastia dosage viagra import uk propecia seit 10 jahren nitroglycerin 0.4 mg sublingual brand name india meloxicam liquid for dogs price acetato de ciproterona yaz side effects doxycycline hyclate 100mg acne bone bactrim toxoplasmosis treatment para que sirve clopidogrel bisulphate levitra ili kamagra cost of clomid body builder uk lisinopril replacement sildenafil citrate trade name in india baclofen disulfiram online propecia generic aciclovir iv pediatric dose lasix potassium problems drug interactions zoloft and imitrex escitalopram 4 weeks gnc erectile dysfunction what is pharmacia cytotec used les inconvenients du zyprexa seroquel for anxiety and sleep powder azithromycin chlamydia gonorrhea duloxetine dosage bnf metronidazole prescriptie street names for amoxicillin strattera medication patient assistance nizoral shampoo giant eagle medicamente zytromax antibiotic adulti what happens when you take 70mg of lexapro does norvasc increase blood sugar how is nexium 40 mg taken can tadalafil controls ejaculation do you need a prescription for horse antibiotics hydrochlorothiazide dosage in dogs erythromycin verapamil interaction levaquin for abcessed tooth side effects of long term glucophage metronidazole for sale dogs generic singulair usa bactrim yasmin drug interactions cipro bertibarots without prescription structural elucidation of digoxin british pharmacopoeia amoxicillin trihydrate fluoxetina y tadalafil side effects of missed dose of levothyroxine clomiphene and bleeding does amoxilin capsule cure yeast infection do i loose my erection with viagra allegra and acetaminophen interactions what if someone young takes viagra buy legit raloxifene cumshot with viagra and without nizoral cool 5g valtrex rtp nc conversion of lipitor to pravastatin what dangers with taking yohimbe with cialis what is dosage for azithromycin for 3 year old natural korean viagra can 8 month old have albuterol treatments para que es fluconazole bactrim for strep amoxicillin for skin infection in dogs how many times to drink bactrim forte ilaci remeron 45mg how much does colcrys cost without insurance augmentin and jock itch levaquin stiffness topamax recreational drug metoprolol blood pressure med side effects cipro hc otic suspension safe for dogs ld 50 wellbutrin nizoral shampoo clarksville tn ciprone tab levaquin bacterial infection increase synthroid side effect douleur apres prise de cytotec quetiapine metabolites ebay uk propecia canine fluconazole dose celebrex drug information in spanish what is the right dose for taking xasten dexamethasone can azithromycin be taken for a tooth infection maximum cialis tolerance who makes cialis in india synthroid side effects nih buy acyclovir online no prescription uk can ciproxine treat ovarian cysist benicar de 20 mg es igual a benicar de 20 mg sobre 12.5 lisinopril dental treatment aciclovir para cistitis how long after taking flagyl can i drink alchohol dystonia tapering off zyprexa can i take amoxicillin while pregnant for sinus zovirax pomada como usar pharmacie en ligne priligy paracetamol tablet while taking clomid cephalexin 500 mg bid pret medicament dostinex erythromycin pleghm can amoxicillin cause shaking on a 2 year old can men take buspar cialis para quem tem press?o alta dosage of bactrim for toddlers mrsa skin infections what happens when taking 4000 mg of gabapentin viagra for musturbation over the counter orlistat 60mg why nexium not covered by insurance cual diferencia glucophage glucophage xr lasix during lactation tadalafil fasa claravis accutane and alcohol prednisone 20 mg pill identifier augmentin 1.2 gm injection price cuanto dura el sangrado en un aborto con cytotec does sore nipples inclusive on clomid side effect prometrium 200 come usarlo pulmicort vs. proventil wallgreenviagra price how much does viagra cost cost in india efectos de viagra en la mujer is glucophage safe for breast cancer ranbaxy lipitor recall ketoconazole over the counter from canada ciprodex coupons discounts how much neurontin causes overdose when to start trying to conceive after clomid effects of erecto 100mg clomid eisprong dag 20 allegra weissleder amitriptyline taste disturbance how much is viagra at asda pharmacy viagra kosov

St Cyril of Alexandria

June 27
by EWTN | Source:

St Cyril of Alexandria

Doctor of the Church. St. Cyril has his feast in the Western Church on the 28th of January; in the Greek Menaea it is found on the 9th of June, and (together with St. Athanasius) on the 18th of January.

He seems to have been of an Alexandrian family and was the son of the brother of Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria; if he is the Cyril addressed by Isidore of Pelusium in Ep. xxv of Bk. I, he was for a time a monk.

He accompanied Theophilus to Constantinople when that bishop held the "Synod of the Oak" in 402 and deposed St. John Chrysostom. Theophilus died 15 Oct., 412, and on the 18th Cyril was consecrated his uncle's successor, but only after a riot between his supporters and those of his rival Timotheus. Socrates complains bitterly that one of his first acts was to plunder and shut the churches of the Novatians. He also drove out of Alexandria the Jews, who had formed a flourishing community there since Alexander the Great. But they had caused tumults and had massacred the Christians, to defend whom Cyril himself assembled a mob.

This may have been the only possible defence, since the Prefect of Egypt, Orestes, who was very angry at the expulsion of the Jews was also jealous of the power of Cyril, which certainly rivaled his own. Five hundred monks came down from Nitria to defend the patriarch. In a disturbance which arose, Orestes was wounded in the head by a stone thrown by a monk named Ammonius. The prefect had Ammonius tortured to death, and the young and fiery patriarch honoured his remains for a time as those of a martyr.

The Alexandians were always riotous as we learn from Socrates (VII, vii) and from St. Cyril himself (Hom. for Easter, 419). In one of these riots, in 422, the prefect Callistus was killed, and in another was committed the murder of a female philosopher Hypatia, a highly-respected teacher of neo-Platoism, of advanced age and (it is said) many virtues. She was a friend of Orestes, and many believed that she prevented a reconciliation between the prefect and patriarch. A mob led by a lector, named Peter, dragged her to a church and tore her flesh with potsherds till she died. This brought great disgrace, says Socrates, on the Church of Alexandria and on its bishop; but a lector at Alexandria was not a cleric (Scr., V, xxii), and Socrates does not suggest that Cyril himself was to blame. Damascius, indeed, accuses him, but he is a late authority and a hater of Christians.

Theophilus, the persecutor of Chrysostom, had not the privilege of communion with Rome from that saint's death, in 406, until his own. For some years Cyril also refused to insert the name of St. Chrysostom in the diptychs of his Church, in spite of the requests of Chrysostom's supplanter, Atticus. Later he seems to have yielded to the representations of his spiritual father, Isisdore of Pelusium (Isid., Ep. I, 370). Yet even after the Council of Ephesus that saint still found something to rebuke in him on this matter (Ep. I, 310). But at last Cyril seems to have long since been trusted by Rome.

It was in the winter of 427-28 that the Antiochene Nestorius became Patriarch of Constantinople. His heretical teaching soon became known to Cyril. Against him Cyril taught the use of the term Theotokus in his Paschal letter for 429 and in a letter to the monks of Egypt. A correspondence with Nestorius followed, in a more moderate tone than might have been expected. Nestorius sent his sermons to Pope Celestine, but he received no reply, for the latter wrote to St. Cyril for further information.

Rome had taken the side of St. John Chrysostom against Theophilus, but had neither censured the orthodoxy of the latter, nor consented to the patriarchal powers exercised by the bishops of Constantinople. To St. Celestine Cyril was not only the first prelate of the East, he was also the inheritor of the traditions of Athanasius and Peter.

The pope's confidence was not misplaced. Cyril had learnt prudence. Peter had attempted unsuccessfully to appoint a Bishop of Constantinople; Theophilus had deposed another. Cyril, though in this case Alexandria was in the right, does not act in his own name, but denounces Nestorius to St. Celestine, since ancient custom, he says, persuaded him to bring the matter before the pope. He relates all that had occurred, and begs Celestine to decree what he sees fit (typosai to dokoun--a phrase which Dr. Bright chooses to weaken into "formulate his opinion"), and communicate it also to the Bishops of Macedonia and of the East (i.e. the Antiochene Patriarchate).

The pope's reply was of astonishing severity. He had already commissioned Cassian to write his well known treatise on the Incarnation. He now summoned a council (such Roman councils had somewhat the office of the modern Roman Congregations), and dispatched a letter to Alexandria with enclosures to Constantinople, Philippi, Jerusalem, and Antioch.

Cyril is to take to himself the authority of the Roman See and to admonish Nestorius that unless he recants within ten days from the receipt of this ultimatum, he is separated from "our body" (the popes of the day had the habit of speaking of the other churches as the members, of which they are the head; the body is, of course the Catholic Church). If Nestorius does not submit, Cyril is to "provide for" the Church of Constantinople.

Such a sentence of excommunication and deposition is not to be confounded with the mere withdrawal of actual communion by the popes from Cyril himself at an earlier date, from Theophilus, or, in Antioch, from Flavian or Meletius. It was the decree Cyril has asked for. As Cyril had twice written to Nestorius, his citation in the name of the pope is to be counted as a third warning, after which no grace is to be given.

St. Cyril summoned a council of his suffragans, and composed a letter which were appended twelve propositions for Nestorius to anathematize. The epistle was not conciliatory, and Nestorius may well have been taken aback. The twelve propositions did not emanate from Rome, and were not equally clear; one or two of them were later among the authorities invoked by the Monophysite heretics in their own favour.

Cyril was the head of the rival theological school to that of Antioch, where Nestorius had studied, and was the hereditary rival of the Constantinopolitan would-be patriarch. Cyril wrote also to John, Patriarch of Antioch, informing him of the facts, and insinuating that if John should support his old friend Nestorius, he would find himself isolated over against Rome, Macedonia, and Egypt.
John took the hint and urged Nestorius to yield. Meanwhile, in Constantinople itself large numbers of the people held aloof from Nestorius, and the Emperor Theodosius II had been persuaded to summon a general council to meet at Ephesus.

The imperial letters were dispatched 19 November, whereas the bishops sent by Cyril arrived at Constantinople only on 7 December. Nestorius, somewhat naturally, refused to accept the message sent by his rival, and on the 13th and 14th of December preached publicly against Cyril as a calumniator, and as having used bribes (which was probably as true as it was usual); but he declared himself willing to use the word Theotokos. These sermons he sent to John of Antioch, who preferred them to the anathematizations of Cyril.

Nestorius, however, issued twelve propositions with appended anathemas. If Cyril's propositions might be might be taken to deny the two natures in Christ, those of Nestorius hardly veiled his belief in two distinct persons. Theodoret urged John yet further, and wrote a treatise against Cyril, to which the latter replied with some warmth. He also wrote an "Answer" in five books to the sermons of Nestorius.

As the fifteenth-century idea of an oecumenical council superior to the pope had yet to be invented, and there was but one precedent for such an assembly, we need not be surprised that St. Celestine welcomed the initiative of the emperor, and hoped for peace through the assembly. (See EPHESUS, COUNCIL OF.) Nestorius found the churches of Ephesus closed to him, when he arrived with the imperial commissioner, Count Candidian, and his own friend, Count Irenaeus. Cyril came with fifty of his bishops. Palestine, Crete, Asia Minor, and Greece added their quotient. But John of Antioch and his suffragans were delayed.

Cyril may have believed, rightly or wrongly, that John did not wish to be present at the trial of his friend Nestorius, or that he wished to gain time for him, and he opened the council without John, on 22 June, in spite of the request of sixty-eight bishops for a delay. This was an initial error, which had disastrous results.

The legates from Rome had not arrived, so that Cyril had no answer to the letter he had written to Celestine asking "whether the holy synod should receive a man who condemned what it preached, or, because the time of delay had elapsed, whether the sentence was still in force". Cyril might have presumed that the pope, in agreeing to send legates to the council, intended Nestorius to have a complete trial, but it was more convenient to assume that the Roman ultimatum had not been suspended, and that the council was bound by it. He therefore took the place of president, not only as the highest of rank, but also as still holding the place of Celestine, though he cannot have received any fresh commission from the pope. Nestorius was summoned, in order that he might explain his neglect of Cyril's former monition in the name of the pope. He refused to receive the four bishops whom the council sent to him. Consequently nothing remained but formal procedure.

For the council was bound by the canons to depose Nestorius for contumacy, as he would not appear, and by the letter of Celestine to condemn him for heresy, as he had not recanted. The correspondence between Rome, Alexandria, and Constantinople was read, some testimonies where read from earlier writers show the errors of Nestorius. The second letter of Cyril to Nestorius was approved by all the bishops.

The reply of Nestorius was condemned. No discussion took place. The letter of Cyril and the ten anathemaizations raised no comment. All was concluded at one sitting. The council declared that it was "of necessity impelled" by the canons and by the letter of Celestine to declare Nestorius deposed and excommunicated. The papal legates, who had been detained by bad weather, arrived on the 10th of July, and they solemnly confirmed the sentence by the authority of St. Peter, for the refusal of Nestorius to appear had made useless the permission which they brought from the pope to grant him forgiveness if he should repent. But meanwhile John of Antioch and his party had arrived on the 26th and 27th of June.

They formed themselves into a rival council of forty-three bishops, and deposed Memnon, Bishop of Ephesus, and St. Cyril, accusing the latter of Apollinarianism and even of Eunomianism. Both parties now appealed to the emperor, who took the amazing decision of sending a count to treat Nestorius, Cyril, and Memnon as being all three lawfully deposed. They were kept in close custody; but eventually the emperor took the orthodox view, though he dissolved the council; Cyril was allowed to return to his diocese, and Nestorius went into retirement at Antioch. Later he was banished to the Great Oasis of Egypt.

Meanwhile Pope Celestine was dead. His successor, St. Sixtus III, confirmed the council and attempted to get John of Antioch to anathematize Nestorius. For some time the strongest opponent of Cyril was Theodoret, but eventually he approved a letter of Cyril to Acacius of Berhoea. John sent Paul, Bishop of Emesa, as his plenipotentiary to Alexandria, and he patched up reconciliation with Cyril.

Though Theodoret still refused to denounce the defence of Nestorius, John did so, and Cyril declared his joy in a letter to John. Isidore of Pelusium was now afraid that the impulsive Cyril might have yielded too much (Ep. i, 334). The great patriarch composed many further treatises, dogmatic letters, and sermons. He died on the 9th or the 27th of June, 444, after an episcopate of nearly thirty-two years.

To read more about the Saint go to:

Saint Cyril of Alexandria (1)

Saint Cyril of Alexandria (2)

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular