cvs propecia cos can you take a diflucan every 48 hours when to stop smoking on wellbutrin dexamethasone sodium phosphate 24 mg ml what medication is similar to lexapro diflucan tbl metformin bed wetting side effects naproxen 1000 mg per dag prednisone 50 mg for 5 days side effects ketoconazole 1 hair loss cialis 20mg vs viagra buspirone and alcohol cipla misoprostol 200 mg buy online buspar decrease dopamine can a person use viagra everyday how much prednisone for polyps dosage what should i expect when taking cialis usual dose of augmentin for an 8year old periactin can make you high cuanto cuesta metronidazole 500 mg how does amoxicillin work gonorrhea cymbalta weight gain forum antibiotics used in cystite zithromax remboursement zithromax gut flora 50 mg amoxicillin without rx overnight cialis strattera melatonine secretly give viagra to wife valacyclovir hydrochloride xenical med alkohol norvasc bruising atenolol 100mg tab tablall ta a s me metformin bad taste laroxyl for depression purchase avodart howdotofound que efectos secundarios tiene tomar cialis energy level warfarin high inr blood levels medicamentos similares al viagra en mexico ciprofloxacin ear drops price philippines flagyl and fever can i buy viagra at cvs without a perscription abilify comp 5 mg accutane how long before pregnancy what is my dose of viagra ja tomou levofloxacino chromium picolinate is equal to how much metformin trial pack viagra thuoc felodipine 5 mg generic femara side effects metronidazole 500mg for staph propranolol infant side effects finasteride din number venta cytotec cuenca ecuador what is the dosage of gabapentin for dogs is tadalafil good viagra ototoxic should a second dose of diflucan work for yeast lexapro bladder irritation cymbalta le matin ou le soir trazodone in pakistan effect of freezing augmentin 228 suspention depo subq provera injection price in india prednisone burst for lower back pain como conseguir cytotec sin receta en puebla azithromycin dispersible tablets dosage in romana allegra manitoba ventolin spray gyerekeknek sante canada clopidogrel amlodipine brand names doxycycline equivalenet dose minocycline esomeprazole twice daily flagyl pill albuterol dosage and cycle can clomid affect fertility how long does augmentin 875 take to work precio levitra 20 mg farmacia mobic oral suspension australia trazodone 400 mg bedtime proventil contraindications lexapro magnesium citrate cheapest brand viagra revista 23 lorenzetti finasteride dopo 40 anni how ling does diflucan take to work metformin nachweis is paxil ok to take while pregnant ampicillin kg mg conversion atorvastatin calcium trihydrate melting point augmentin copii contraindicatii price of provera 5 mg in india can i take lipodrene with synthroid misoprostol sans ordonnance belgique poop color changes while taking lisinopril hgz will topamax cause weight loss side effects drug glucophage fungsi obat dexamethasone tablet 25mg vs 50mg viagra celexa makes me feel jittery lamisil for poison ivy cialis cheap cialis cheap orlistat india amoxicillin de 850 mg imagens do comprimido viagra abilify medication and autism augmentin dosing renal failure thyroxine .50 and synthroid150 boths tab is same taking lyrica and zoloft together propranolol ratiopharm 40 mg cosa serve can you take advil and cialis keflex dose for 12 year old tetracycline and bone staining can you chew metronidazole 500mg dapoxetine price in indian rupees drunking wine taking nexium tofranil 25 mg tablet is ampicillin good for bronchitis dosage of flagyl 400 puppy clomid first round pregnancy how to use viagra for best results in urdu isotretinoina vuelven a salir granos atenolol online no prescription azithromycin chlamydia powder can a 9 month old do the albuterol inhalation plavix vs coumadin afib baclofen 160 mg olanzapine adalah cymbalta 30 mg 7 capsulas prednisone lower blood sugar cialis and celebrex viagra online paypal accepted metoprolol succinate 25 mg discount coupon lexapro 5 mg forum doxycycline indications and usage amitriptyline tumblr pharmacies that bupropion in istanbul turkey doxycycline hyclate 100mg std what color is liquid clomiphene bet limits in linezolid api price lisinopril china does clomid need to be taken at the same time each day what does a 5mg amitriptyline tablet look like cialis 20mg espa?ol clarithromycin vs amoxicillin overtreatment of lamisil spray nexium medication history took diflucan and urine smells tadalafil generic side effects prednisone 60 mg 5 days boob growth azithromycin al 500mg filmtabletten alkohol is it ok to cut cialis in half what is the pediatric dose of albuterol for an infant how to use phenergan suppositories how much is misoprostol cost in south africa doxycycline dawkowanie how long to take doxycycline after tick bite otc alternative to lasix inderal 10mg reduce high blood pressure dose of glucophage to control appetite get high from oxycodone and buspirone en cuanto tiempo hace efecto hydroxyzine harga antibiotik erythromycin lustral sertraline 100mg side effects baclofen as muscle relaxer metformin cost walmart mixing armour thyroid with synthroid how long do mirtazapine side effects last where can i get cialis in trinidad to buy when will the generic of lexapro be available how should amoxicillin 50g be taken while pregnant can you take zyrtec with flagyl harmful effects of orlistat misoprostol y diabetes olanzapine hangover xenical average weight loss ethinyl estradiol 2 micrograms zovirax cold sore cream uk chlamydia azithromycin drink treatment levofloxacin english sinus dosage how to take colchicine houde 6 tablets buy propranolol 40mg celebrex 200 and leg burning orlistat xenical review of men pamelor de 10mg clopidogrel custo dutasteride reviews and results can cipro be used to treat boils coreg 6.25 dosage taking 2 capsules diflucan while pregnant flagyl 39 70 acyclovir for acne cheap voltaren olmesartan and calf pain can micardis hct pills be split digoxin 250 mcg price zovirax schwanger atenolol 6.25 nortriptyline and weight gain forums ciprofloxacin for hospital acquired pneumonia what happens if i take 5 2.5mg cialis can spironolactone cause pancreatitis buy naproxen online teva montelukast gluten se puede usar cytotec con 6 semanas de embarazo disulfiram longevity famvir dosage for genital herpes does cialis come in generic form quais os beneficios de orlistat 5mg lexapro and glass of wine fexofenadine 120 and montelukast 10 3 weeks on cymbalta farmacias de costa rica que vendan misoprostol atorvastatin calcium price in india cheapest ever kamagra uk cipla generic cialis reviews what is shelf life of cephalexin antibiotic cymbalta hematology side effects side effects of celecoxib capsules does cipro 1000xl cure chlamydia estradiolo 80 pg ml verapamil 60 mg buy nolvadex online pharmacy gabapentin for bfs get viagra professional cyproheptadine diabetes cialis realmente funciona cipro situazione croup 3 year old dosage of albuterol sulfate syrup is it safe to take amitriptyline with clenbuterol los jovenes tambien toman viagra tadalafil brand names zyprexa in schizophrenia propecia available philippines bactrim precioi metoprolol 200 mg bid how much is gabapentin without insurance will i lose weight with doxycycline 100mg how long should it take ciprofloxacin to start working sony zyprexa cost in india can u still take clomiphene 2days after periods can allopurinol dissolve tophi obat yang mengandung viagra finasteride in euro can 7yr old take albuterol n qvar together forums in women whos husbands take viagra viagra tabs shown on howard stern show what are disulfiram tablets used for propecia purchase uk premarin crema prezzo persone che usano quest crema is augmentin good for gonorrhea clomid directions for men kamagra oral jelly u nasoj zemlji using toilet in night topiramate pamelor 25 mg side effects walk hard viagra periactin 2mg 5ml syrup metformin use and side effects can you snort trazodone and get high how long does a 20 mg of cialis last in a man emraan hashmi aap ki adalat full episode co terbinafine 250mg use nizoral 2 shampoo how to fight depression using antidepressants kegunaan obat nexium clomipramine cost cytotec harganya berapa bupropion 75 mg mylan is my levothyroxine doage too low metformin cold symptoms men and nolvadex street value duloxetine 60mg ventolin inyectable buspar and hydrocodone olmesartan medoxomil hydrochlorothiazide hplc average cost of atorvastatin in india what is acyclovir denk used for lexapro type of antidepressant buy cheap generic viagra america amitriptyline sam e buspar side effects kidney es prazole nexium generic usage how effective viagra how to use abortion pills misoprostol cytotec can i take amoxil for sinus is thyroxine dangerous price lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide coumadin chatrooms how long can viagra be detected in the blood meloxicam for dogs no prescription clomid and fasting duloxetine and dapoxetine whats the difference gabapentin nerve pain 300 mg accutane stefan singulair price walgreens isotretinoin price comparison miconazole vs terbinafine flagyl tablet 200 mg obat apa dosis ciprofloxacina ev is priligy effective ciprofloxacin price mercury drugstore inexpensive septra ds no prescription 75mg plavix mon mec prend du cialis amoxicillin dosage and uti wher can i buy furosemide 20 mg in ireland lisinopril hctz and loss of appetite ivermectin 1 drops feldene 20 mg piroxicam how long can you take doxycycline for chest infection natural remedies tamoxifen side effects cheapest price for viagra bactrim take on empty stomach can you take seroquel and zofran atorvastatin retail price will 6.25 milligrams of lasix hurt a human dostinex price viagra canada wikipedia bactrim iv dosing buy cialis tablets cialis bigger stronger ketoconazole tablets ip metformin lh disulfiram shot coumadin necrosis icd 9 code furosemide mode action lisinopril tablets suppliers anafranil 25 et prise de poids doxazosin and tamsulosin together augmentin es dawki lexapro and high prolactin keflex antacids flagyl suspension and antibiotic for yeast infection doxycycline hyclate buy in india cytotec precio en argentina farmacias del ahorro is a cough a common side effect of lisinopril metformin extended release india price how does azithromycin work for acne cymbalta and platelet dysfunction can u give a dog 10mg prednisone and benadryl ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablets telmisartan 80 mg chlorthalidone 12.5 mg chances of getting pregnant with clomid 5 mg lexapro for rem sleep disorder how much viagra do you need to take to overdose singulair mitral valve prometrium reviews allegra price walgreens surdosage de zyprexa seroquel brain shivers escitalopram para ancianos atorvastatin statins orlistat 90 propranolol mouth ulcers disease seroquel overdose hallucinations generic buspar price neurontin 500 mg bupropion contraindications ephedrine girl gets fucked by viagra bonner doxycycline hydrochloride and bladder infections cipro xl 1000mg cost in sa what is the pill ondansetron for dangers of plavix 100mg clomid percent of sucess what to expect after taking clomid walmart price premarin cream inderal for public speaking dosage ano and side effect ng ofloxacin getting off abilify message boards mylan levothyroxine problems toddler restless after amoxicillin allergy flomax e aspirina flagyl forte dosage huong dan su dung thuoc singulair 10mg will amoxicillin treat a bartholin cyst homeopathic alternative to accutane montelukast levocetirizine pharmacodynamics can i take nytol with sertraline can you drink alcohol while taking fluconazole 50mg pink poop amoxicillin dye infant verand piroxicam 40 mg seroquel da sueno

Saint Januarius (I)

September 19
by Catholic Encyclopedia | Source: New Advent

Martyr, Bishop of Beneventum.

St. Januarius is believed to have suffered in the persecution of Diocletian, c. 305. With regard to the history of his life and martyrdom, we know next to nothing. The various collections of "Acts", though numerous (cf. Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina, n. 4115-4140), are all extremely late and untrustworthy. Bede (c. 733) in his "Martyrologium" has epitomized the so-called "Acta Bononiensia" (see Quentin, Les Martyrologes historiques", 76). To this source we may trace the following entry in the present Roman Martyrology, though the reference to the miracle of the liquefaction is an addition of much later date. "At Pozzuoli in Campania [the memory] of the holy martyrs Januarius, Bishop of Beneventum, Festus his deacon, and Desiderius lector, together with Socius deacon of the church of Misenas, Proculus deacon of Pozzuoli, Eutyches and Acutius, who after chains and imprisonment were beheaded under the Emperor Diocletian. The body of St. Januarius was brought to Naples, and there honourably interred in the church, where his holy blood is kept unto this day in a In the Breviary a longer account is given. There we are told that "Timotheus, President of Campania," was the official who condemned the martyrs, that Januarius was thrown into a fiery furnace, but that the flames would not touch him, and that the saint and his companions were afterwards exposed in the amphitheatre to wild beasts without any effect. Timotheus declaring that this was due to magic, and ordering the martyrs to be beheaded, the persecutor was smitten with blindness, but Januarius cured him, and five thousand persons were converted to Christ before the martyrs were decapitated. Then, as the Breviary lesson continues, "the cities of these coasts strove to obtain their bodies for honourable burial, so as to make sure of having them advocates with God. By God´s will, the relics of Januarius were taken to Naples at last, after having been carried from Pozzuoli to Beneventum and from Beneventum to Monte Vergine. When they were brought thence to Naples they were laid in the chief church there and have been there famous on account of many miracles. Among these is remarkable the stopping of eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, whereby both that neighbourhood and places afar off have been like to be destroyed. It is also well known and is the plain fact, seen even unto this day, that when the blood of St. Januarius, kept dried up in a small glass phial, is put in sight of the head of the same martyr, it is wont to melt and bubble in a very strange way, as though it had but freshly been shed."

It is especially this miracle of the liquefaction which has given celebrity to the name of Januarius, and to this we turn our attention. Let it at once be said that the supposition of any trick or deliberate imposture is out of the question, as candid opponents are now willing to admit. For more than four hundred years this liquefaction has taken place at frequent intervals. If it were a trick it would be necessary to admit that all the archbishops of Naples, and that countless ecclesiastics eminent for their learning and often for their great sanctity, were accomplices in the fraud, as also a number of secular officials; for the relic is so guarded that its exposition requires the concurrence of both civil and ecclesiastical authority. Further, in all these four hundred years, no one of the many who, upon the supposition of such a trick, must necessarily have been in the secret, has made any revelation or disclosed how the apparent miracle is worked. Strong indirect testimony to this truth is borne by the fact that even at the present time the rationalistic opponents of a supernatural explanation are entirely disagreed as to how the phenomenon is to be accounted for.

What actually takes place may be thus briefly described: in a silver reliquary, which in form and size somewhat suggests a small carriage lamp, two phials are enclosed. The lesser of these contains only traces of blood and need not concern us here. The larger, which is a little flagon-shaped flask four inches in height and about two and a quarter inches in diameter, is normally rather more than half full of a dark and solid mass, absolutely opaque when held up to the light, and showing no displacement when the reliquary is turned upside down. Both flasks seem to be so fixed in the lantern cavity of the reliquary by means of some hard gummy substance that they are hermetically sealed. Moreover, owing to the fact that the dark mass in the flask is protected by two thicknesses of glass it is presumably but little affected by the temperature of the surrounding air. Eighteen times in each year, i.e. (1) on the Saturday before the first Sunday in May and the eight following days, (2) on the feast of St. Januarius (19 Sept.) and during the octave, and (3) on 16 December, a silver bust believed to contain the head of St. Januarius is exposed upon the altar, and the reliquary just described is brought out and held by the officiant in view of the assembly. Prayers are said by the people, begging that the miracle may take place, while a group of poor women, known as the "zie di San Gennaro" (aunts of St. Januarius), make themselves specially conspicuous by the fervour, and sometimes, when the miracle is delayed, by the extravagance, of their supplications.

The officiant usually holds the reliquary by its extremities, without touching the glass, and from time to time turns it upside down to note whether any movement is perceptible in the dark mass enclosed in the phial. After an interval of varying duration, usually not less than two minutes or more than an hour, the mass is gradually seen to detach itself from the sides of the phial, to become liquid and of a more or less ruby tint, and in some instances to froth and bubble up, increasing in volume. The officiant then announces, "Il miracolo é fatto", a Te Deum is sung, and the reliquary containing the liquefied blood is brought to the altar rail that the faithful may venerate it by kissing the containing vessel. Rarely has the liquefaction failed to take place in the expositions of May or September, but in that of 16 December the mass remains solid more frequently than not.

It is of course natural that those who are reluctant to admit the supernatural character of the phenomenon should regard the liquefaction as simply due to the effects of heat. There are, they urge, certain substances (e.g. a mixture of spermaceti and ether) which have a very low boiling point. The heat produced by the hands of the officiant, the pressing throng of spectators, the lights on the altar, and in particular the candle formerly held close to the reliquary to enable the people to see that the mass is opaque, combine to raise the temperature of the air sufficiently to melt the substance in the phial--a substance which is assumed to be blood, but which no one has ever analysed. Further, ever since the early years of the eighteenth century, sceptical scientists, by using certain chemical preparations, have reconstructed the miracle with more or less of success; that is to say, they have been able to exhibit some red substance which, though at first apparently solid, melted after an interval without any direct application of heat. None the less, it may be said with absolute confidence that the theory of heat affords no adequate explanation of the phenomena observed.

For more than a century careful observations of the temperature of the air in the neighbourhood of the relic have been made on these occasions and the records have been kept. It is certain from the scientific memoirs of Professors Fergola, Punzo, and Sperindeo that there is no direct relation between the temperature, and the time and manner of the liquefaction. Often when the thermometer has stood at 77° Fahrenheit or even higher, liquefaction has been delayed for as much as twenty or even forty minutes, while on the other hand the contents of the phial have sometimes liquefied in considerably less time than this when the thermometer remained as low as 60 or 65 degrees. Moreover, the heat theory by no means accounts for another more remarkable fact observed for quite two hundred years past. The mass in melting commonly increased in volume, but when it solidifies again it does not necessarily return to its original bulk. Sometimes the whole phial is seen to be occupied, at other times hardly more than half. This has led a Neapolitan scientist of modern times, Professor Albini, to suggest a new physical theory derived from observing the behaviour of a viscous fluid such as partly congealed honey. He conjectures that the unknown substance in the phial consists of some highly divided solid matter which is partly held in suspension by a disproportionately small quantity of liquid. When at rest, the liquid sinks to the bottom of the phial, while the solid particles form a sort of crust not easily displaced when the vessel is turned upside down. This cohesion is however overcome by repeated movements, such as those that the reliquary experiences when the moment of liquefaction is impatiently waited for. Further, such a viscous fluid easily cakes upon the walls of the containing vessel, and admits large air bubbles which cause the deceptive appearance of a change of volume.

Professor Albini claims to have reproduced all the phenomena with a compound made of powdered chocolate and the serum of milk. On the other hand, those who have studied closely the process of liquefaction of the contents of the phial declare that such an explanation is absolutely impossible. Moreover, there seem to be well-attested instances of liquefaction taking place both in the case of this and other similar relics of blood, when the reliquary has been standing by itself without any movement whatsoever.

Accordingly, the suggestion has also been made (see Di Pace, "Ipotesi scientifica sulla Liquefazione", etc., Naples, 1905) that the phenomenon is due to some form of psychic force. The concentration of thought and will of the expectant crowd and specially of the "aunts of St. Januarius" are held to be capable of producing a physical effect. Against this, however, must be set the fact that the liquefaction has sometimes taken place quite unexpectedly and in the presence of very few spectators.

Probably the most serious difficulty against the miraculous character of the phenomenon is derived from the circumstance that the same liquefaction takes place in the case of other relics, nearly all preserved in the neighbourhood of Naples, or of Neapolitan origin. These include relics which are affirmed to be the blood of St. John the Baptist, of St. Stephen the first martyr, of St. Pantaleone, of St. Patricia, of St. Nicholas of Tolentino, of St. Aloysius Gonzaga, and others. In the case of the alleged liquefaction of the so-called "Milk of Our Lady" (see Putignani, S.J., "De Redivivi Sanguine S. Januarii", Naples, 1723, I, 90) or of the fat of St. Thomas Aquinas (see Magnoni Valenti, "Discorso istorico" 1772, 47) we have probably a pure fiction, but the phials traditionally associated with the names of St. John the Baptist, St. Stephen, and St. Pantaleone undoubtedly still exhibit on the respective feast days of these saints phenomena exactly analogous to those shown in the case of the more famous relic of St. Januarius. Further, it is asserted by eyewitnesses of scientific credit and high respectability that a block of basalt at Pozzuoli, reputed to bear traces of the blood of St. Januarius, grows vividly red for a short time in May and September at the hour when the miracle of the liquefaction takes place in Naples (se Cavène, "Célèbre Miracle de S. Janvier", 1909, 277-300).

Three other points attested by recent investigators seem worthy of special note.
It now appears that the first certain record of the liquefaction of the blood of St. Januarius dates from 1389 (see de Blasiis, "Chronicon Siculum incerti auctoris", Naples, 1887, 85), and not from 1456, as formerly supposed.

In 1902 Professor Sperindeo was allowed to pass a ray of light through the upper part of the phial during liquefaction and examine this beam spectroscopically. The experiment yielded the distinctive lines of the spectrum of blood. This, however, only proves that there are at any rate traces of blood in the contents of the phial (see Cavène, "Le Célèbre Miracle", 262-275).
Most remarkable of all, the apparent variation in the volume of the relic led in 1902 and 1904 to a series of experiments in the course of which the whole reliquary was weighed in a very accurate balance. It was found that the weight was not constant any more than the volume, and that the weight of the reliquary when the blood filled the whole cavity of the phial exceeded, by 26 grammes, the weight when the phial seemed but half full. This very large difference renders it impossible to believe that such a substantial variation in weight can be merely due to an error of observation.

We are forced to accept the fact that, contrary to all known laws a change goes on in the contents of this hermetically sealed vessel which makes them heavier and lighter in a ratio roughly, but not exactly, proportional to their apparent bulk (Cavène, 333-39). The reality of the miracle of St. Januarius has repeatedly been made the subject of controversy. It has had much to do with many conversions to Catholicism, notably with that of the elder Herder. Unfortunately, however, allegations have often been made as to the favourable verdict expressed by scientific men of note, which are not always verifiable. The supposed testimony of the great chemist, Sir Humphry Davy, who is declared to have expressed his belief in the genuineness of the miracle, seems to be a case in point.

To read more about other Saints of the day, CLICK HERE

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular