can u get high off buspar pills 1 g zithromax tadalafila 5 how many quetiapine and clonidine will kill you standard dose amoxicillin tonsil stones success with clomid no ovulation pain sildenafil uk trade price viagra purchase online canada can paxil cause withdraws after 3 days at 10 mg ecg changes with seroquel overd syrup septran indication how long can gabapentin solution stay out of the fridge wellbutrin 150mg tamoxifen im internet kaufen arimidex online no prescription generic viagra and cialis clonidine patch and guanfacine ok combinded doxepin teva 10 mg forum italia glucophage 850mg b.d for pcos gabapentin 5027 how much septra do i give dog for parvo generic augmentin 875 mg wellbutrin body odor in nipples benazepril hydrochloride in australia buy accutane with mastercard buy lasix solution online ciprofloxacin 500 is it safe to exercise while taking quetiapine 50 mg tablets side effects can amoxicillin make you bleed glimepiride 37 46 dose of metformin for prediabetes cheap sildenafil no prescription scuba dive and use of albuterol nebulizer para que sirve ketoconazole crema farmacias en cusco peru que vendan misoprostol metronidazole price uk cialis generic side effect when antibiotics do not work for chlamydia can u order.periactin on ebay lexapro dosage 60 zyban ret 30 does citalopram have antihistamines in them prednisone 10mg 7 day taper schedule plendil 100 mg farmacia del ahorro venden cytotec sin receta atorvastatin side effects sun exposure glucophage xr and type 1 diabetes aquatic doxycycline furosemide vs torsemide dose orlistat 120 mg pode toma cerveja clomid is manufactured in france levofloxacin infusion in kenya ketoconazole tablet price philippines what does bio metronidazole do in pregnancy piroxicam costo teva generic pamelor fluvoxamine maleate 100 mg tab side effects apa beda cialis tadalafil 20 mg dan 80 mg clorhidrato propranolol celexa side effects green diarrhea metronidazole antibiotics for dogs australia biotech ciprofloxacin can they help me to conceive prednisone 7 day pack side effects azithromycin online pharmacy uk yeni red viagra 200mg topamax mayo order baclofen overnight neurontin 900 mg tid glimepiride nursing considerations quetiapine lawsuit took one dose of of azithromycin can i drink alcohol generic viagra companies can u shoot up buspar generic zithromax azithromycin 250 mg side effects of buspar with nexium gabapentin 1800 mg per day paxil and orange juice clopidogrel off patent indonesia buspar sublingual can you give a double dose of amoxicillin cani take my 60 mg of prednisone all at once evista side effects with a tooth implant mail order amaryllis fluconazole 150 mg frequent need to pees kamagra maxi 100mg in uk can you use metronidazole gel after abortion can i take benadryl while on metoprolol how long can a cat stay on mirtazapine wellbutrin 5 htp together yogurt and flagyl a1c levels and metformin dose metformin hcl 750 mg er tablet bactrim es bueno why does pamelor costs so much price of cipla mifepristone and misoprostol cytotec for miscarriage dose discount sildenafil for my dog tamsulosin mr 400 mcg caps works by sertraline hcl and hangovers cialis order online prescription irbesartan prices usa amitriptyline 30 mg nitroglycerin ointment over the counter uk brucam piroxicam d 20 mg para q sirve doxycycline hyclate powder for humans harga acyclovir paten trazodone 25 mg causing false positive drug test atomoxetine hydrochloride 18 mg doxycycline capsule 100mg indications jual gabapentin 100mg leukopenia cymbalta fluconazole para que es bueno reason of light sensitivity of inj linezolid paxil cr therapeutic levels how many days is flagyl dosage for food poisoning diltiazem price philippines tamsulosin ebay doxycycline 900 mg fungsi fluconazole 150mg tablets can metformin be purchased over the counter nz celexa 30 mg vs 40 mg does gabapentin and klonopin cause sleepiness citalopram 20 mg for anxiety how to wean off 50 mg of seroquel xr cuanto cuesta la cytotec cvs pharmacy discount viagra prescription cheap amlodipine purchase nitroglycerin spray life without prozac flagyl metronidazole ebay walgreens cost of cialis at walmart is it safe to take viagra while taking nifedipine how long does 80 mg propranolol wear off naprosyn 500 price is bactrim good for strep throat puedo tomar misoprostol para que me baje amarylim tab 2 mg metoprolol succinate stada nizoral cream obat utk apa voltaren salep adalah side effects of metronidazole 50 mg en cuantas horas hace efecto el misoprostol dipyridamole 50 mg cipro flakon muadili does buspirone make your skin feel hot doxepin neuraxpharm 75 mg nebenwirkungen availabilty of linezolid syrup in uae pastilla cytotec cuanto cuesta en panama when will the reduced dose of thyroxine take effect zithromax taken with or without food price of plavix at walmarts generic naproxen 500 mg cuantas dosis de cytotec para 14 semanas de embarazo famvir prior to acoustic neuroma surgery zyprexa dose dog synthroid price comparison bactrim dose sbp prophylaxis is acyclovir and oxycodone mwant for shingles zc 16 paxil pirex sildenafil 100mg can amoxicillin trihydrate cure green discharge augmentin 200 mg ??urup ic bupropion sr 150 mg used with alcohol does mid cycle bleeding affect ovulation after clomid hypercalcemia and the use of prednisone is cytotec bitter online purchase of viagra in india cipro fast acting insomnia on prometrium no uterus paroxetine er clonazepam zydus torsemide tab 100mg in.wat way does pills metronidazole500ml clean u zofran odt 4 mg oral tablet disintegrating why do i get a headache on coumadin while masturbating duloxetine costco pharmacy i took cialis 2.5 mg and felt faint and flushed nizoral antifungal shampoo nail fungus treatment can i do the hcg dier while on warfarin voltaren 75 mg 60 tabletten overdose on baclofen.muscle relaxer side effects of cytotec abortion how long should someone take doxycycline hyclate strattera 80 mg street value docusate sodium warfarin interaction rcp celecoxib order tadalafil no prescription can cialis work for more then one time carvedilol price philippines is duloxetine yentreve 20mg used for anxiety buy amoxicillin pot clavulanate azithromycin how long should d stomack pain last what is the clomid treatment protocol in nz buy cheap clomid online no prescription can ketoconazole be used for a cold sore metoprolol propranolol equivalency harga zovirax cream 5g sertraline jittery danazol dose australia does levitra professional work can antibiotic and prednisolone combine with spirulina periactin and appetite stimulant coltrax con meloxicam indicaciones cost of tadalafil buy arimidex cheap uk kamagra oral jelly review uk antibiotics maximum days twins with clomid no trigger colcrys generic discontinued how can topamax and neurontin help lupus cheap zovirax sale harga obat tablet nizoral super tetra tetracycline hcl metronidazole dosage dogs fexofenadine hydrochloride tablets dosage for scabies can montelukast get you high does doxycycline hyclate cause lost of taste how is clomiphene citrate tablet taken amlodipine and alcohol consumption is it safe to purchase clomid online doses of amitriptyline in premature ejaculation apo metronidazole for chlamidiya does bactrim affect birth control co ciprofloxacin hcl safe while breastfeeding how much is zovirax 400 mg tablet what does bactrim taste like pill identifier spelling colcrys captopril sublingual indicardin propranolol side effects metronidazole infusion price tamiflu and erythromycin can you get zovirax ointment over the counter zyvox no prescription atenolol para que sirve augmentin 875 mg will kill syphilis augmentin syrup duo yan etki sildenafil citrate 50 mg tablets defference between ciprofloxacin and zenflox can i drink or eat grapefruit if im taking lasix zyprexa 20 mg tablets can 1000mg of azithromycin cure std in 3days fluoxetine medicine price pakistan amoxil 1 gram antibiotics for gonorrhea 1 g azithromycin light green pill for depression cytotec argentina precio zovirax 1 gram wellbutrin sr 300 mg side effects arimidex after 5 years azithromycin 6 pack cost available cialis from korea purchase famvir online busco cytotec en ciudad bolivar does lamisil get you high what is ciprofloxacin hcl 500 mg taapo used for obat diabetes metformin 250 mg misoprostol cytolog tablets price celexa 15mg plavix 75 mg coupons tetracycline light sensitive in fish tanks street value for meloxicam canada cialis order seroquel price vs tramadol prices gabapentin and eye dialation zoloft makes me art and design vibramycin birds dog in celebrex commercial swimming bactrim dosing cellulitis obesity side effects of increaseing celexa from 5mg to 10mg tamoxifen buy online zyvox cost per dose difference between albuterol 0.63 and 0.083 can you buy cialis in italy dosis acyclovir anak azithromycin daily dose limit india atorvastatin 10 mg price in uae is it ok to take 80 mg of sildenafil aturan pakai obat flagyl forte aerococcus urinae and cipro wellbutrin twitching cerotto piroxicam prezzo does doxycycline show up in drug test hcpc metronidazole 500mg tab nexium 30 minutes before the meal can you take maxalt before surgery clomiphene 50mg ovulation walmart singulair price can i take two doses of diflucan opipramol prozac second cialis 20mg zoloft and conception viagra prices usa propranolol dosage for social anxiety misoprostol 400 mcg every 6 hours how quickly does thyroxine take effect walmart oral phenergan medicine price does strattera keep you adderall is 400 mg of trazodone too much for sleep voltaren 800 olanzapine 10 mg for anxiety clopidogrel 65 terbinafine plus mankind norvasc and omega 3 if you took a 300mg gabapentin can you take a ativan zoloft alternatives without weight gain prazosin 2 gabapentin in horses generic levitra manufacturer india nizoral ketoconazole 2 can inderal 80 mg cause sweating cytotec tablets market in south africa can i crush metronidazole 500 tablets what is the street value of buspar dapoxetine for sale online is augmentin and amoxicillin good for treating gonohrea olmesartan 20 mg tablets metronidazole 500mg from planned parenthood meloxicam con metocarbamol cuando tienes bebe y tomas cytotec puede lactar nolvadex for tnbc septra bactrim shelf life coreg 12.5 mg twice a day cytotec misoprostol em piracicaba augmentin400 cosa serve mag3 captopril renal scan lyme bactrim 28 days diflucan vs nystatin for infants will azithromycin dissolve kidney stones clomid 50mg success how many round olanzapine high paxil nursing considerations how propecia made my beard grow plavix sams club proscar 28 black cialis 200mg dicloreum o voltaren making levitra more effective can you inject paroxetine hydrochloride 20 mg syrup augmentin 156mg dosage grapefruit reacts to azithromycin tablets usp 250 mg can zoloft cause chronic dizziness buy orlistat medicine no prescription viagra canadian levofloxacin meningitis nizoral ketoconazole shampoo 120ml bottle 2 gave kitten too much doxycycline augmentin 1g pret cutie cystitis bactrim treatment protocol seroquel price without insurance bactrim para celulitis antibiotics for babies 3 times a day metformin er 500 mg side effects acyclovir suppressive therapy and flu can u get high off the medication remeron gnc 72 hour diet pill reviews can lexapro get you high dexamethasone tablets 4mg india el bactrim f causa edema hyzaar 50 mg fiyat how does lasix work in the body zithromax oral suspension for cats clomid buy usa sildenafil 50 mg tablet purity solutions sildenafil citrate review flagyl costo accutane available mumbai bupropion 300 mg xl tab can i take seroquel xr withpotassium vitamin does fluoxetine 20 mg weight lose for everyone where can i buy viagra in bangkok flagyl not working side effects of sertraline capsules with alchol 60mg cialis is lexapro bad for liver can i buy synthroid online can antibiotics flash sperm when trying for a baby can you take metronidazole while taking bupropion naprosyn 1000 mg for back pain meloxicam 3.5 mg mifepristone and misoprostol price philippine online

Saint Robert Bellarmine (I)

September 17
by Catholic Encyclopedia | Source: New Advent
A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at Montepulciano, 4 October, 1542; died 17 September, 1621. His father was Vincenzo Bellarmino, his mother Cinthia Cervini, sister of Cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards Pope Marcellus II. He was brought up at the newly founded Jesuit college in his native town, and entered the Society of Jesus on 20 September, 1560, being admitted to his first vows on the following day. The next three years he spent in studying philosophy at the Roman College, after which he taught the humanities first at Florence, then at Mondovì. In 1567 he began his theology at Padua, but in 1569 was sent to finish it at Louvain, where he could obtain a fuller acquaintance with the prevailing heresies. Having been ordained there, he quickly obtained a reputation both as a professor and a preacher, in the latter capacity drawing to his pulpit both Catholics and Protestants, even from distant parts. In 1576 he was recalled to Italy, and entrusted with the chair of Controversies recently founded at the Roman College. He proved himself equal to the arduous task, and the lectures thus delivered grew into the work "De Controversiis" which, amidst so much else of excellence, forms the chief title to his greatness. This monumental work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various controversies of the time, and made an immense impression throughout Europe, the blow it dealt to Protestantism being so acutely felt in Germany and England that special chairs were founded in order to provide replies to it. Nor has it even yet been superseded as the classical book on its subject-matter, though, as was to be expected, the progress of criticism has impaired the value of some of its historical arguments.

In 1588 Bellarmine was made Spiritual Father to the Roman College, but in 1590 he went with Cardinal Gaetano as theologian to the embassy Sixtus V was then sending into France to protect the interests of the Church amidst the troubles of the civil wars. Whilst he was there news reached him that Sixtus, who had warmly accepted the dedication of his "De Controversiis", was now proposing to put its first volume on the Index. This was because he had discovered that it assigned to the Holy See not a direct but only an indirect power over temporals. Bellarmine, whose loyalty to the Holy See was intense, took this greatly to heart; it was, however, averted by the death of Sixtus, and the new pope, Gregory XIV, even granted to Bellarmine´s work the distinction of a special approbation. Gaetano´s mission now terminating, Bellarmine resumed his work as Spiritual Father, and had the consolation of guiding the last years of St. Aloysius Gonzaga, who died in the Roman College in 1591. Many years later he had the further consolation of successfully promoting the beatification of the saintly youth. Likewise at this time he sat on the final commission for the revision of the Vulgate text. This revision had been desired by the Council of Trent, and subsequent popes had laboured over the task and had almost brought it to completion. But Sixtus V, though unskilled in this branch of criticism, had introduced alterations of his own, all for the worse. He had even gone so far as to have an impression of this vitiated edition printed and partially distributed, together with the proposed Bull enforcing its use. He died, however, before the actual promulgation, and his immediate successors at once proceeded to remove the blunders and call in the defective impression. The difficulty was how to substitute a more correct edition without affixing a stigma to the name of Sixtus, and Bellarmine proposed that the new edition should continue in the name of Sixtus, with a prefatory explanation that, on account of aliqua vitia vel typographorum vel aliorum which had crept in, Sixtus had himself resolved that a new impression should be undertaken.

The suggestion was accepted, and Bellarmine himself wrote the preface, still prefixed to the Clementine edition ever since in use. On the other hand, he has been accused of untruthfulness in stating that Sixtus had resolved on a new impression. But his testimony, as there is no evidence to the contrary, should be accepted as decisive, seeing how conscientious a man he was in the estimation of his contemporaries; and the more so since it cannot be impugned without casting a slur on the character of his fellow-commissioners who accepted his suggestion, and of Clement VIII who with full knowledge of the facts gave his sanction to Bellarmine´s preface being prefixed to the new edition. Besides, Angelo Rocca, the Secretary of the revisory commissions of Sixtus V and the succeeding pontiffs, himself wrote a draft preface for the new edition in which he makes the same statement: (Sixtus) "dum errores ex typographiâ ortos, et mutationes omnes, atque varias hominum opiniones recognoscere cœpit, ut postea de toto negotio deliberare atque Vulgatam editionem, prout debebat, publicare posset, morte præventus quod cœperat perficere non potuit". This draft preface, to which Bellarmine´s was preferred, is still extant, attached to the copy of the Sixtine edition in which the Clementine corrections are marked, and may be seen in the Biblioteca Angelica at Rome.

In 1592 Bellarmine was made Rector of the Roman College, and in 1595 Provincial of Naples. In 1597 Clement VIII recalled him to Rome and made him his own theologian and likewise Examiner of Bishops and Consultor of the Holy Office. Further, in 1599 he made him Cardinal-Priest of the title of Santa Maria in viâ, alleging as his reason for this promotion that "the Church of God had not his equal in learning". He was now appointed, along with the Dominican Cardinal d´Ascoli, an assessor to Cardinal Madruzzi, the President of the Congregation de Auxiliis, which had been instituted shortly before to settle the controversy which had recently arisen between the Thomists and the Molinists concerning the nature of the concord between efficacious grace and human liberty. Bellarmine´s advice was from the first that the doctrinal question should not be decided authoritatively, but left over for further discussion in the schools, the disputants on either side being strictly forbidden to indulge in censures or condemnations of their adversaries. Clement VIII at first inclined to this view, but afterwards changed completely and determined on a doctrinal definition. Bellarmine´s presence then became embarrassing, and he appointed him to the Archbishopric of Capua just then vacant. This is sometimes spoken of as the cardinal´s disgrace, but Clement consecrated him with his own hands--an honour which the popes usually accord as a mark of special regard. The new archbishop departed at once for his see, and during the next three years set a bright example of pastoral zeal in its administration.

In 1605 Clement VIII died, and was succeeded by Leo XI who reigned only twenty-six days, and then by Paul V. In both conclaves, especially that latter, the name of Bellarmine was much before the electors, greatly to his own distress, but his quality as a Jesuit stood against him in the judgment of many of the cardinals. The new pope insisted on keeping him at Rome, and the cardinal, obediently complying, demanded that at least he should be released from an episcopal charge the duties of which he could no longer fulfil. He was now made a member of the Holy Office and of other congregations, and thenceforth was the chief advisor of the Holy See in the theological department of its administration. Of the particular transactions with which his name is most generally associated the following were the most important: The inquiry de Auxiliis, which after all Clement had not seen his way to decide, was now terminated with a settlement on the lines of Bellarmine´s original suggestion. 1606 marked the beginning of the quarrel between the Holy See and the Republic of Venice which, without even consulting the pope, had presumed to abrogate the law of clerical exemption from civil jurisdiction and to withdraw the Church´s right to hold real property. The quarrel led to a war of pamphlets in which the part of the Republic was sustained by John Marsiglio and an apostate monk named Paolo Sarpi, and that of the Holy See by Bellarmine and Baronius. Contemporaneous with the Venetian episode was that of the English Oath of Alliance. In 1606, in addition to the grave disabilities which already weighed them down, the English Catholics were required under pain of prœmunire to take an oath of allegiance craftily worded in such wise that a Catholic in refusing to take it might appear to be disavowing an undoubted civil obligation, whilst if he should take it he would be not merely rejecting but even condemning as "impious and heretical" the doctrine of the deposing power, that is to say, of a power, which, whether rightly or wrongly, the Holy See had claimed and exercised for centuries with the full approval of Christendom, and which even in that age the mass of the theologians of Europe defended. The Holy See having forbidden Catholics to take this oath, King James himself came forward as its defender, in a book entitled "Tripoli nodo triplex cuneus", to which Bellarmine replied in his "Responsio Matthfi Torti". Other treatises followed on either side, and the result of one, written in denial of the deposing power by William Barclay, an English jurist resident in France, was that Bellarmine´s reply to it was branded by the Regalist Parlement of Paris. Thus it came to pass that, for following the via media of the indirect power, he was condemned in 1590 as too much of a Regalist and in 1605 as too much of a Papalist.

Bellarmine did not live to deal with the later and more serious stage of the Galileo case, but in 1615 he took part in its earlier stage. He had always shown great interest in the discoveries of that investigator, and was on terms of friendly correspondence with him. He took up too--as is witnessed by his letter to Galileo´s friend Foscarini--exactly the right attitude towards scientific theories in seeming contradiction with Scripture. If, as was undoubtedly the case then with Galileo´s heliocentric theory, a scientific theory is insufficiently proved, it should be advanced only as an hypothesis; but if, as is the case with this theory now, it is solidly demonstrated, care must be taken to interpret Scripture only in accordance with it. When the Holy Office condemned the heliocentric theory, by an excess in the opposite direction, it became Bellarmine´s official duty to signify the condemnation to Galileo, and receive his submission. Bellarmine lived to see one more conclave, that which elected Gregory XV (February, 1621). His health was now failing, and in the summer of the same year he was permitted to retire to Sant´ Andrea and prepare for the end. His death was most edifying and was a fitting termination to a life which had been no less remarkable for its virtues than for its achievements.

His spirit of prayer, his singular delicacy of conscience and freedom from sin, his spirit of humility and poverty, together with the disinterestedness which he displayed as much under the cardinal´s robes as under the Jesuit´s gown, his lavish charity to the poor, and his devotedness to work, had combined to impress those who knew him intimately with the feeling that he was of the number of the saints. Accordingly, when he died there was a general expectation that his cause would be promptly introduced. And so it was, under Urban VIII in 1627, when he became entitled to the appellation of Venerable. But a technical obstacle, arising out of Urban VIII´s own general legislation in regard to beatifications, required its prorogation at that time. Though it was reintroduced on several occasions (1675, 1714, 1752, and 1832), and though on each occasion the great preponderance of votes was in favour of the beatification, a successful issue came only after many years. This was partly because of the influential character of some of those who recorded adverse votes, Barbarigo, Casante, and Azzolino in 1675, and Passionei in 1752, but still more for reasons of political expediency, Bellarmine´s name being closely associated with a doctrine of papal authority most obnoxious to the Regalist politicians of the French Court. "We have said", wrote Benedict XIV to Cardinal de Tencin, "in confidence to the General of the Jesuits that the delay of the Cause has come not from the petty matters laid to his charge by Cardinal Passionei, but from the sad circumstances of the times" (Études Religieuses, 15 April, 1896).

[Note: St. Robert Bellarmine was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1930, and declared a Doctor of the Universal Church in 1931. He is the patron saint of catechists.]

To read more about other Saints of the day, CLICK HERE

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular