how much finasteride should an adult take viagra may cause if 10mg levitra doesnt work can i take 20mg dose of bactrim for dogs with lyme disease erythromycin brand name in nigeria plavix and prilosec mayo clinic para k sirve propranolol er inderal la 60 mg en espanol atarax overdose how to taper prednisone 50 mg for dermatitis my dog ate 5 5mg montelukast augmentin nach zahnextraktion how many times can you cum with cialis citalopram mg doses clomid ovulation sign albuterol inhaler copay nexium otc vs prescription nexium doxycyclinemono for pleurisy metronidazole 500mg tablet amlodipine 10 mg natural alternative how to buy cialis in store in tijuana abu dhabi to get viagra ivermectin pills for sell cheapest finasteride 1mg za kakvo e ciproxin synthroid and belly fat trazodone hydrochloride 150 mg high can liquid azithromycin be mixed in alcohol cheap isotretinoin online what does the generic drug montelukast look like maca e estradiolo xn--b1afpdqbb8d.xn--p1ai clomid in philippines today zithromax dosage 250 mg counteract levofloxacin citalopram gabapentin withdrawal luvox cr 150 mg capsules natural indian tablet for erectile dysfunction stomach issues from amoxicillin dexamethasone sodium poshpate adalah how to order cialis online clomiphene ovamit 100 mg how it is taken can a nine year old take diflucan for ring worm cost viagra nz lisinopril and high potassium foods doxycycline 40 mg how long to work male enhancement pills tamoxifen 5th month on clomid buy oral or gel isotretinoin efek samping obat cyproheptadine hcl 4 mg alternatief finasteride can you have a drink when taking amoxicillin generic zovirax capsules bactrim and strep coverage elavil side effects for cats cytotec post c section buspar and alcohol overdose buspirone and methadone dose septra ds type atorvastatin brands australia sildenafil black cobra posologie hctz 12.5 lisinopril 10 mg side effects does benicar 40 mg hct 12.5 cause headaches best price generic viagra or cialis cipro polokwane contacts buy doxepin uk albuterol 4 puff dosage isotretinoin price at walmart metoprolol 50 mg or 75 metformin denk effets indesirable sildenafil sandoz erfahrungen conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg levonorgestrel etinilestradiol letinnov strong ovulation pain clomid evista prices canada ketovid ketoconazole avodart precio mexico wellbutrin rash treatment cialis et alfuzosine lamisil how long system acyclovir 600mg side effect can you take tylenol pm with methocarbamol propecia higher testosterone 5htp works same part of brain as amitriptyline xenical renal failure cymbalta brief euphoria estradiol side effects dogs acyclovir meningitis how much is diovan feldene 20 mg dosage plavix interaction with metronidazole accutane mode of action celexa discontinuation period beli propecia di jakarta daily singulair with a daily claritin cialis online viagra adalat ep 182 amlodipine besylate amvasc 5mg strattera side effects wellbutrin para que sirve el carvedilol doxycycline dosage for dogs ehrlichiosis lasix no longer works prednisone in dogs side effects panting amlodipine besylate and kidney stones valacyclovir and acyclovir ciprofloxacin hcl and alcohol prednisone 12 day dose pack for nerve inflammation hair loss nizoral metformin and clomid missed period what does disulfiram like reaction mean side effects acyclovir 200mg can i take 150mg diflucan 2 days in a row what will happen if you take doxycycline while pregnant walgreens zithromax ear infections lisinopril equivalent what prescription shampoo contains ketoconazole metronidazole po dosage in birds paper uk viagra sales zofran 5 weeks pregnant lasix drink more water discount viagra hawaii where can i buy furosemide 40 mg uk metronidazole and breadtfeeding reviews diflucan 150 safe with probiotics is there speed in 150mg of sertraline is it ok to take fluconazole while breastfeeding how long does azithromycin stay in your system paxil aricept how does cipro effect my turkey neck still have fatigue with thyroxine 25 mcg can tourettes take wellbutrin how often can ventolin inhaler be used cheap robaxin hereisthebestin misoprostol 800 mcg po topamax tabletas manfaat kalmethasone 0.5 dexamethasone how long does it take wellbutrin to leave your body dosage 36 hour cialis lisinopril to fosinopril conversion hydroxyzine 25 mg high school decadron 4 mg side effects im 17 and take cialis scabies treatment prednisone generic viagra 20 mg diflucan how long system what can be taken with viagra to make synthroid upper back pain nolvadex wskazania voltaren 50mg dosage for back pain high on maxalt what size pill does lisinopril hctz amiodarone 200 mg price weight gain and antidepressants celexa viagra make you hard cyproheptadine tablets for weight gain what does ondansetron 4mg orraly dispersible cost allegra ephedrine doxycycline contraindicaciones buy kamagra gel estradiol 80 pg ml donde comprar cytotec en tacna finasteride 1 mg cost in ksa albuterol recreation cipro 500mg for pilonidal cyst doxycycline 800mg harga salep ketoconazole zithromax 7 days should i take wellbutrin in the am or pm amlodipine effetti collaterali buy cheap amoxicillin uk terlev vs coumadin looking after your skin while on accutane lamisil cream generic name is anything otc like lisinopril ethynil estradiol y levonorgestrel a safe it is to take 400mg of celebrex for ra harga salep nizoral is it safe to take viagra for old people zithromax 1 gram in egypt efek samping dexamethasone sodium phosphate uterine polyp tamoxifen levofloxacin 1500mg doxycycline hyclate strep throat genox tamoxifen citrate what about ciis makes it work longer than viagra compare janumet and metformin is metoprolol cardioselective viagra overnite shipping how long before clomid starts working dapoxetine kosten transdermal clonidine indonesia ketoconazole pgp does doxycycline hyclate cause lost of taste morning sickness zofran dosage tapering off estrace cialis 5mg tablets uk propranolol and prozac together symptoms of withdrawal from metoprolol does 5 mg of lexapro work topiramate approved by fda how much are amoxicillin 500mg worth cheap elavil rowcmoadreders reaction to bactrim symptoms facial rash prednisone albuterol en atletas fluconazole arrow 200mg clomid with blue packaging clomiphene with metformin redustat orlistat precio levitra financials can i get zithromax at walgreens without a prescription el medicamento propranolol buy nexium online safely does bluecross cover cialis cytotec en cuenca ecuador dostinex comanda online misoprostol venta sin receta colombia julphamox amoxicillin 500 mg maxalt agizda erir drug interactions metformin and alcohol viagra samples in rsa bystolic to coreg conversion is rizatriptan benzoate a narcotic bcs class of buspirone can i eat okra while on coumadin viagra pills cipro for giardia efectos secundarios levothyroxine 50 what to do about retna detachment caused by lexapro coumadin 2.5 mg color generic vardenafil prices what is difference between mg in viagra how much is cialis 5mg tabs in nz i smoked weed on mirtazapine yahoo answers can you eat yogurt while taking cephalexin can you use metronidazole 0.75 for poison ivy serdep and wellbutrin interact can you crush metronidazole 250 mg septran ss 480mg orlistat 120 mg weight loss in south africa starlix 60 clomid without inducing period thyroxine binding globulin assay 7.5 mg infusion of decadron cancer ampicillin gentamicin chorioamnionitis phenergan and low blood pressure correo no deseado viagra cialis 5mg daily dose buy priligy uk cat augmentin dose can people on coumadin and eat cake made with molasses voltaren k voor hond tabletten thuoc levociprofloxacin doxycycline hyclate canine montelukast levocetirizine in bronchitis 20grams of anafranil pregnancy symptoms after taking clomid can zoloft make you emotionless kamagra 50 gel oral contraindicaciones propranolol 20 mg sr tab brand name how much is vardenafil in kenya herbal viagra australia paypal can you take panodol with famciclovir tablets furosemide 40 mg bestellen nexium pediatric coupons nizoral uk muscle will ciprofloxacin work for a tooth infection metronidazole 500mg and alcohol minipress xl 5 mg tablet anafranil rea??es adversas ventolin solutie de inhalat prin nebulizator viagra sale physician singulair 30 day supply do you feel horny with viagra trigeminal neuralgia treatment amitriptyline how to buy clomid online capetown 1.25 olanzapine for sleep nateglinide prices is 125 mg viagra too much can i get imipramine tab without prescription ashwagandha wellbutrin rui raloxifene stomach pain amlodipine controversy how much 20mg cialis cost kamagra in winnipeg precio de cialis en canada prednisone causes sweating cialis at publix erythromycin and omeprazole mode of action tamsulosin can lexapro increase copd get high off bactrim ds citalopram 509 weaning off of 20 mg of celexa lamisil geld zuruck garantie much does lipitor cost walmart forgot clomid dose kamagra como tomarla costco price of cialist ketoconazole shampoo adrenal insufficiency buy ciprotab online what side effects does wrong dosage of thyroxine cause neurontin feel good acyclovir 400 walmart colchicine allopurinol anb lipitor cpk level antibiotics 1 hari 4 kali cytotec in olongapo contract number can i use flagyl for sinus infection can using lasix pills cause thrush meloxicam 18 mg medicamentul cytotec cheap clomipramine 25mg wellbutrin for personality disorder para que sirve la pastilla lasix and inderal buy accutane online safety hydrochlorothiazide discontinue use cipro nord offerte how much fluconazole in mercury plavix generic manufacturer postpartum ocd lexapro 15 mg fake proscar from singapore 50mg clomid and testosterone baclofen pump does work albuterol hfa definition viagra in dubai duty free buy dapoxetine hydrochloride para que es la pastillaamitriptyline hcl 25 mg atarax suspension pq sirve zentiva fluoxetine 20 mg side effect in menses vardenafil citrate melting point how often should i take flagyl 400 mg daily for bv prednisone to treat lyme disease in dogs is strattera an amphetamine accutane isotretinoin buy online metoprolol succinate 95 can amoxicillin be used on baby squirrels does 1000 mg of azithromycin cure chlamydia that day flagyl overnight no prescription im 15weeks pregnant can i use flagyl to treat purging why take clomid for 5 days clomid and prednisone for men difference entre le viagra et le levitra misoprostol for abortion at 16weeks cialist ghb metronidazole alcohol cooking para que serve propranolol 30 mg dostinex 10 mg ciprofloxacin tendon rupture incidence allopurinol and wine how much water should be taken with metoprolol price zyprexa 15 mg sandoz lisinopril 10 mg tablets clomid instruction for pct isotretinoin 4th month low thyroxine and low tsh cost propecia costco metronidazole norfloxacin side effects para q sirven las pastillas dostinex can you take prednisone with aspirin carvedilol 6 mg genital herpes and pregnancy acyclovir cutting zoloft dosage down syndrome misoprostol 50 mcg tablets after taking antibiotics can u sweat clomid 100mg 7dpo no symptoms cost of antibiotics in the philippines can 18 year olds use viagra remeron and duloxetine prednisone 10 mg west ward espanol uprosol tamsulosina review viagra como comprar en argentina tamoxifen side effects in males cymbalta temazepam dxm amoxicillin tamoxifeno glucophage have far apart to take bid buspar when did singulair become generic generic viagra nz prednisone 25 ml dosage

Theology of Work

The late Holy Father John Paul II teaches that work must test and engage the whole person, not just the physical aspect.
by Robert J. Batule | Source:
Much has changed in the world of work over the last thirty years. We have only to consider the sweeping changes in technology, the composition of the work force, especially the presence of women today and the higher standard of living now, especially in Western democratic nations.

Changes in the world of work have forced us to look more carefully at their implications in our lives. Not all of these changes, we must admit, have had a salutary effect.

Ever since Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903), the Catholic Church has been officially on record as showing a concern for the person and work. Leo XIII´s encyclical Rerum Novarum (1891) was published precisely for the purpose of addressing the many issues surrounding the person and work. Successive popes have sought to build on the pioneering work of Leo XIII by publishing their own encyclicals, all important contributions to the developing body of the Church´s understanding of work.

Much in these encyclicals has centered on the rights of workers and the Church´s defense of these rights. These last thirty years have witnessed a continuation of the Church´s defense of the rights of workers. But these last thirty years have also witnessed a deepening concern for other dimensions of what has been called the labor question.

Thirty years ago, the Second Vatican Council came to a close. One of the most important documents to emerge from the Church´s twenty-first ecumenical council was the pastoral constitution entitled The Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et Spes). This document grew out of an idea proposed on the floor of the council, and it turned out to be the last of the sixteen documents approved by the Council Fathers. The pastoral constitution on the Church in the Modern World was intended to complement the dogmatic constitution entitled Lumen Gentium and deal more specifically with issues beyond the Church´s nature.

Gaudium et Spes is the longest of the conciliar documents and it treats the question of labor and leisure in paragraph 67. Echoes of earlier papal encyclicals are heard in paragraph 67. But we also find hints of what Pope John Paul II will say later about work in his encyclical Laborem Exercens (1981). What I aim to do is show the development between Gaudium et Spes and Laborem Exercens. This connection is important to note if we are attempting to understand the direction of the Church´s theology and spirituality of work.

The Council Fathers associate themselves with earlier papal encyclicals by stating in Gaudium et Spes that "labor . . . is superior to the other elements of economic life (67)."1 They indicate that labor "comes immediately from the person (67)."2 And they assert that "the person stamps the things of nature with his seal and subdues them to his will (67)."3 The Council Fathers then go on to offer the example of Christ "who conferred an eminent dignity on labor when at Nazareth He worked with His own hands (67)."4

The Abbott/Gallagher edition of the Documents of Vatican II inserts a footnote at this point. Footnote 216 reads as follows: "The Council refuses to render a technical or concrete ethical judgment on a complex economic development such as the very recent step-up in automation."5 This caveat or cautionary note is important. The Council Fathers do not engage in any sustained treatment of "complex economic development" and they do not offer any analysis of "the very recent step-up in automation." What the Council Fathers do, however, is plant the seeds for future deliberation and reflection and ecclesiastical pronouncement.

Near the end of paragraph 67, the Council Fathers teach that "any way of organizing and directing [economic] activity which would be detrimental to any worker would be wrong and inhuman (67)."6 They concede that "even in our day, that in one way or another workers are made slaves of their work (67)."7 To eliminate this, the Council Fathers recommend that "the entire process of production work . . . be adapted to the needs of the person and to the requirements of his life, above all his domestic life (67)."8 They suggest further that "the opportunity should also be afforded to workers to develop their own abilities and personalities through the work they perform (67)."9 Finally, the Council Fathers advise that workers "have the opportunity to develop on their own the resources and potentialities to which, perhaps, their professional work gives little scope (67)."10

This relatively small part of Gaudium et Spes (paragraph 67) did not, obviously, draw a whole lot of attention in the post-conciliar era-until 1981, that is, the year Pope John Paul II published Laborem Exercens. To understand why this is so and why the present pontiff is especially qualified to enlarge upon the themes of paragraph 67, it is necessary that we go back and consider briefly the kind of philosophical thought which shaped the mind of the former Karol Wojtyla and which he, quite obviously, brought to the Chair of Saint Peter.

Wojtyla on subjectivity

In 1969, Karol Wojtyla published the Polish version of The Acting Person, his philosophical anthropology. Ten years later (1979), a publishing company produced a revised edition and a translation into English. In Chapter One of The Acting Person, Karol Wojtyla, then Cardinal Archbishop of Cracow, identifies the person as a subject. He calls subjectivity "the ground on which the dynamic relation, or rather interrelation, between the person and the action is actualized. The failure to recognize man´s subjectivity would deprive us of the level on which can be grasped all the aspects of this interrelation."11

Wojtyla is careful to distinguish here subjectivity and subjectivism. He writes that subjectivism "conceives consciousness itself as a total and exclusive subject-the subject of experiences and values, so far as the domain of moral experience is concerned. Unfortunately, with this approach, experiences and values lose their status of reality; they cease being anything real and remain only as the moment of consciousness."12

Wojtyla´s phenomenology and personalism are concerned with relation, action and actualization. These considerations are closely linked to the ethical sphere, a sphere which is concerned with experiences and values. Wojtyla seeks to integrate and order these various aspects, and show how determinism and idealism are philosophical postures which harm the dignity of the person prior to any cost-benefit analysis or cross-cultural study. For Karol Wojtyla, there can be no personal dignity without freedom; neither can there be personal dignity without truth. The person without freedom and the person without truth are intellectually unimaginable for Wojtyla the philosopher.

An important component of Wojtyla´s philosophical anthropology is the notion of fulfillment. In The Acting Person, Wojtyla argues "to fulfill oneself means to actualize, and in a way to bring to the proper fullness, that structure in man which is characteristic for him because of his personality and also because of his being somebody and not merely something; it is the structure of self-governance and self-possession."13 This leads Wojtyla to conclude "human actions once performed do not vanish without a trace: they leave their moral value, which constitutes an objective reality intrinsically cohesive with the person, and thus a reality also profoundly subjective. Being a person man is ´somebody´ and being somebody he may be either good or bad."14

George Huntston Williams is the author of a very perceptive volume entitled The Mind of John Paul II. In his book, Williams tries to get at the origins of the Polish pontiff´s thought and action. Williams describes the philosopher-pope´s conception of the person "as freely willing his own actions through self-determination according to good or evil and thus fulfilling or not fulfilling his humanity. The person sees the world through ´ethically tinted glasses,´ that is, he orders and judges his actions according to some normative system of ethics. Through the use of that normative ethic the person puts his actions, including self-restraint from evil, in touch with an absolute truth."15

Williams then goes on to define the philosopher-pope´s position as follows: "When man wills the good he fulfills himself; when he does not will the good he remains unfulfilled. Each action includes the experience of a ´moment of truth´ when the self knows the truth or lack of truth, that is, the goodness or lack of goodness of his action. This concept of fulfillment is crucial to the Christian personalism of the author [Wojtyla/John Paul II], the fact that the person fulfills his or her own humanity through freely willing the good."16

The phenomenology and personalism of Karol Wojtyla was to prove very decisive for the Church and the world beginning in October of 1978. On the sixteenth day of the month dedicated to Our Lady, the college of cardinals elected Karol Wojtyla as the 263rd Successor of St. Peter. Instead of publishing books to be read by other phenomenologists and personalists, the new pope would now be in a position to influence much wider audiences. Not only has he reached much wider audiences as pope, but Pope John Paul II has extended the Church´s teaching on work beyond the basic statement of Gaudium et Spes.

Alienation and freedom

Pope John Paul II wasted little time in addressing himself to the question of work. In Redemptor Hominis, his first encyclical, Pope John Paul II gives some hint of the themes he would treat in much greater depth in a later encyclical devoted entirely to the issue of work. In Redemptor Hominis, Pope John Paul II writes:

The man of today seems ever to be under threat from what he produces, that is to say from the result of the work of his hands and, even more so, of the work of his intellect and the tendencies of his will. All too soon, and often in an unforeseeable way, what this manifold activity of man yields is not only subjected to ´alienation´, in the sense that it is simply taken away from the person who produces it, but rather it turns against man himself, at least in part, through the indirect consequences of its effects returning on himself. It is or can be directed against him (RH, 44).17

In accord with John Paul II´s concern for authentic freedom, he warns:

Man cannot relinquish himself or the place in the visible world that belongs to him; he cannot become the slave of things, the slave of economic systems, the slave of production, the slave of his own products. A civilization purely materialistic in outline condemns man to such slavery, even if at times, no doubt, this occurs contrary to the intentions and the very premises of its pioneers (RH, 50).18

A fuller treatment of work, including the themes of alienation and freedom mentioned above, is found in Laborem Exercens, an encyclical to mark the ninetieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. At the beginning of Laborem Exercens, Pope John Paul II underscores the importance of the task at hand. He argues that "human work is a key, probably the essential key, to the whole social question, if we try to see that question really from the point of view of man´s good. And if the solution-or rather the gradual solution-of the social question, which keeps coming up and becomes ever more complex, must be sought in the direction of ´making life more human,´ then the key, namely human work, acquires fundamental and decisive importance."19

Immediately after addressing the biblical roots of work, the Holy Father takes up consideration of work in its objective dimension and its subjective dimension. As Karol Wojtyla used this distinction in The Acting Person, so does Pope John Paul II return to these valuable categories in Laborem Exercens. In Laborem Exercens, the Holy Father considers the aspect of work in which the person "subdues the earth" to be the objective dimension. He recalls how for much of history the objective dimension was agricultural in nature. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the objective dimension of work involved subduing the earth through the use of machinery. He, then, refers to the industrial era giving way to "successive phases of development through new technologies, such as the electronics and microprocessor technology in recent years (LE, 5)."20 Pope John Paul II makes clear, however, that the proper subject of work continues to be man (LE, 5).21 And, of the two dimensions, preeminence is given to the subjective meaning of work over the objective one (LE, 6).22

The development here is not the terminology. The words "objective" and "subjective" have been part of the Church´s parlance for a long time. Certain moral acts, for instance, are described as objectively wrong. And the assignment of culpability takes into account such factors as freedom, consent of the will, etc., what are referred to as subjective dimensions. What is new is Pope John Paul II´s application of these traditional categories. First, he applies them to work, a topic without a long history of moral evaluation in ecclesiastical circles. Second, he uses the terms in a largely philosophical sense. What we have now is a philosophical anthropology giving rise to an ethical vision.

The concept of fulfillment

After establishing the objective and subjective dimensions of work, the Holy Father treats an issue with a decidedly modern ring to it: fulfillment. Modern people have a proclivity for talking about their work being fulfilling or not fulfilling. When modern people use the term "fulfilling," they mean it in a largely psychological sense. Careers can fulfill certain needs we all have, the need for achievement, the need for respect from peers and colleagues, etc. When Pope John Paul II uses the term "fulfillment," he refers not only to psychological needs but to ethical needs.

For example, the Holy Father writes in Laborem Exercens that "as a person works, he performs various actions belonging to the work processes; independently of their objective content, these actions must all serve to realize his humanity, to fulfill the calling to be a person that is his by reason of his very humanity (LE, 6)."23 He continues "work is a good thing for man-a good thing for his humanity-because through work man not only transforms nature, adapting it to his own needs, but he also achieves fulfillment as a human being and indeed, in a sense, becomes more of a human being (LE, 9)."24

What the Polish pontiff accomplishes is not an abrogation of fulfillment but an expansion of it. In The Acting Person, he referred to fulfillment along the lines of actualization, self-governance and self-possession. We recognize these expressions as having a very definite psychological orientation. The would be pope hastens to mention in The Acting Person that being a person is tied up with being somebody, being bad or good.

In Laborem Exercens, he places fulfillment within the context of the calling to be a person and becoming more of a human being. The development here has two aspects really. The first is spiritual. Pope John Paul II confers a legitimacy upon the quest for fulfillment. A more traditional understanding of spirituality emphasizes not self-fulfillment but self-abasement. What the Holy Father does in Laborem Exercens is remove lingering suspicion that it is somehow not proper or insufficiently humble to expect to find self-fulfillment in our work. T

he second aspect is psychological. As Pope John Paul II points up the rightful place for self-fulfillment in work, he does not use the expression as many others do. When the Holy Father refers to self-fulfillment in work, he is not thinking primarily of ego satisfaction. In Laborem Exercens, fulfillment is not a selfish pursuit of gain in its multiple manifestations but fulfillment along the lines of a Christian understanding of personhood. Fulfillment for the Christian comes in self-donation, not in closing oneself off to the free and sincere gift of oneself to God and others.

Linking truth and dignity

The former Lublin professor placed a strong emphasis on truth in his philosophical anthropology. Unlike many in the professoriate today, however, truth for Wojtyla was not a matter of separate truths for you and separate truths for me. Truth was normative, that is, it binds on all and it clearly has an absolute character. It ought not to come as any surprise, then, that the professor become pope would link truth and dignity together in Laborem Exercens. In Laborem Exercens, Pope John Paul II calls work "a good thing for man . . . It is not only good in the sense that it is useful or something to enjoy; it is also good as being something worthy, that is to say, something that corresponds to man´s dignity, that expresses this dignity and increases it."25

Without linking truth and dignity together in an ethical context, Pope John Paul II would not be able to condemn the various abuses the person is made to suffer in economic systems which are always based on philosophical reductionism.

Sections Three and Four of Laborem Exercens cover historical and social issues connected to work. These include ownership, employment, unions, wages and immigration. Section Five of Laborem Exercens treats the elements for a spirituality of work. These include creation, redemption, the Cross and the Resurrection. As important as these considerations are, they would lack a convincing foundation in today´s skeptical world if they were not preceded by an enlightened defense of the person as a free subject who longs for fulfillment without compromising truth and goodness. The case for the person as a free subject who longs for fulfillment without compromising truth and goodness is ably carried forward in Laborem Exercens. Thus, we are afforded an illustration of how philosophical ethics is the thread uniting conciliar teaching with papal teaching.

The conciliar teaching that any way of organizing and directing [economic] activity that would be detrimental to any worker would be wrong and inhuman (GS, 67) waited for amplification and enlargement until Laborem Exercens. In Laborem Exercens, Pope John Paul II defines as wrongful whatever opposes the rightful priority of the subjective over the objective, provided of course we do not understand the subjective dimension as subjectivism. In Laborem Exercens, Pope John Paul II defines as inhuman whatever strips away the inherent dignity of the person, reducing him or her to the status of a slave. The conciliar teaching that workers be afforded the opportunity to develop their abilities, personalities, resources and potentialities (GS, 67) waited for extension and enrichment until Laborem Exercens. In Laborem Exercens, the Holy Father teaches that work must not be used against the person, stifling his or her creativity and imagination. Rather, work must test and engage the whole person, not just the physical aspect.

There are clear and discernible threads connecting Gaudium et Spes and Laborem Exercens. Such are the clear and discernible threads that we can properly say that there is a genuine development between the former and the latter. Just as we claim that from Rerum Novarum to Centesimus Annus the social question has been brought up to date all the while respecting the timeless character of Catholic truth, so too can we claim that the teaching of Vatican II on work in one paragraph of Gaudium et Spes is filled out by the teaching of Pope John Paul II in Laborem Exercens, especially Section Two of the encyclical.


1. Gaudium et Spes, 67.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
11. Karol Wojtyla, The Acting Person, trans. Andrzej Potocki (Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1979), p. 57.
12. Ibid., p. 58.
13. Ibid., p. 151.
14. Ibid.
15. George Huntston Williams, The Mind of Pope John Paul II (New York: The Seabury Press, 1981), p. 205.
16. Ibid., p. 208.
17. Redemptor Hominis, 44.
18. Ibid., p. 50.
19. Laborem Exercens, 3.
20. Ibid., p. 5.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid., p. 6.
23. Ibid.
24. Ibid., p. 9.
25. Ibid.

Reverend Robert J. Batule is a priest of the Diocese of Rockville Centre, N.Y. He earned his M. Div. degree at Immaculate Conception Seminary in Lloyd Harbor, N.Y. and an M.A. in sociology at Adelphi University in Garden City, N. Y. Fr. Batule writes a regular column for Our Sunday Visitor´s popular The Catholic Answer. He is currently assigned to Corpus Christi Church in Mineola, N.Y. Reprinted with permission from Homiletic and Pastoral Review. All rights reserved.

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular