nasacort aq cialis olanzapine wafer absorption can use zovirax ointment while pregnant erfahrungen mit neurontin isotretinoina diradamento capelli cialis precio en mexico is ketoconazole gel ok for my dog tamoxifen citrate cheap plavix for des stent how much does 1 month of generic paxil 20 mg cost thuoc zestril 5 mg atorvastatin effets secondaires is 90mg cymbalta too much for me buy generic cialis that accepts mastercard what does clomid do to follicles fda clopidogrel genetic testing how long does it take zovirax 400 mg pills to work getting lamisil cream without prescription griseofulvin solid dispersion ciprofloxacin resistance in salmonella taking zofran while pregnant buy cytotec in the philippines buy micardis online difference between minocycline and doxycycline amoxicillin 500mg w ciazy allegra allergy fexofenadine side effects cialis 5 mg prezzofarmacia ventolin syrup for kids prospect augmentin 875mg 125mg cialis over the counter dubai cialis online chemist can i take valtrex anf tamiflu side amoxicillin pb 3800 mg cialis scilla sildenafil citrate que contiene celebrex 200 nexium and phenylephrine does flagyl treat e coli allegra coupon without java melhor viagra feminino side effects of amoxicillin 500 milligrams cost of singulair canada viagraspray deutschland metronidazole 2g tablet kegunaan obat kombipak azithromycin cefixime flagyl for tooth bacteria flomax australia buy diltiazem gel sandoz versus propecia glucophage xr 500mg not desolving in stomac propecia results 2 years cymbalta 30 mg forum taking cialis when you every day can take amoxicillin after zpack isoptin 60 mg synthroid side effects kidney stones adalat online games can i drink whilst on azithromycin hcg diet while on prednisone amlodipine besylate structural formula zyvox hotline number proscar tablet turkey plavix and lovenox what to say to your doctor to get cialis how much is prometrium 200 mg allegra difference allegra d ofloxacin spray high on seroquel eurowid ciprofloxacin body aches golongan antibiotik levofloxacin how many mg of azithromycin for a 2 yr old no prescription pharmacy viagra amoxicillin plus clavulante buy online lexapro withdrawal how soon does terbinafine work neurontin quinine cheap tamoxifen citrate como contrarrestar el efecto de cytotec doxycycline side effects tanning bed metformina y embarazo gemelar propecia no prescription cheap estradiol 85 will i v azithromycin treat lymes after gastric bypass cost of amlodipine at walmart without insurance lexapro 10 mg common side effects zithromax therapeutic range labor induction with misoprostol wine viagra effexor cymbalta and serzone side effects of frequent use of viagra ilosone solu?ao pre anafranil y paroxetina maximum lasix drip online shop for viagra buy lamisil oral online retail price on nexium o t c how much will i have to pay for viagra 50 mg terbinafine with fluconazole and fasting keflex buy online nitroglycerin brand names in pakistan dutasteride allergie beda hct dan lasix generic viagra suppliers celexa obsessive compulsive disorder buy terbinafine cream finland erythromycin gut motility mixing bactrim macrobid tamoxifen and gynecomastia topiramate acute glaucoma azithromycin for 7 years old stopping the use of plavix what happens of i double up on cialis zithromax and trazodone what happens if you mix trimix with cialis can take cialis losartan can you get gabapentin at a clinic valacyclovir safe dose cialis and ms estradiol patch and prednisolone le cialis 5 mg viagra now available eye drops flagyl antibiotic buy viagra detached retina efek samping dexamethasone tablet 0;75 mg kd ki adalat cast paypal acyclovir ivermectin supply a dosing chart for zithromax voltaren emulgel online kaufen keflex da sue?o topiramate induced insomnia olanzapine side effects cuanto esta la pastilla abortiva misoprostol chimbote hp pac prevacid amoxicillin clarithromycin para que sirve la pastilla anafranil weaning off prednisone eye drops buy nolvadex eu ventolin ila?pedia ventolin inhaler indicatii can you take vitex and metformin together can you take amoxicillin trihydrate for tooth infection anafranil 75 mg posologia prednisone after spinal fusion rite aid viagra price levothyroxine kopen metformina en el embarazo can baclofen cause red dry eyes why do u gain weight on paxil flagyl mode dadministration manfaat kalmethasone 0.5 dexamethasone glucophage xr 1000 e a perda de peso can lasix cause a false negative pregnancy test how much does celebrex cost in canada metronidazole gel 0.755 baclofen 10 mg fibromyalgia cost of estradiol transdermal patch viagra en usa ciprofloxacin is it in the penicillin family chloramphenicol 1 w eye ointment viagra building hoax dosis del septrazone warfarin and afrin 4th day on celexa 5mg sildenafil 50 mg sirve para la eyaculacion precoz methocarbamol and vistaril diflucan die off symptoms autism what are the main side effects of bupropion can wellbutrin help with migraines cephalexin and janumet metoprolol tartrate toxicity kamagra ajanta pharma india valdoxan vs paroxetine allegra stratton dob how much clonidine will make you overdose .1 mg how much does accutane cost in south carolina cipritol 4 cyproheptadine generic zovirax capsules erythromycin enzymes can acyclovir delay your menstrual period paroxetine precautions nizoral cream 30gm buy single dose azithromycin amoxicillin 500 bula rate of xenical in india cuantos kilos bajas orlistat estradiol cause hair loss how does levaquin darken urine dutasteride hiperplasia prostatica can u use amitriptyline and remeron together can bactrim cause constipation premarin cream .625 aldactone ordonnance tadalafil citrate mechanism xn--b1afpdqbb8d.xn--p1ai diflucan 150mg reaction with alcohol paxil dosage ocd solodyn and zoloft kamagra oral jelly 1000 st kaufen phenergan potentiates opiates antibiotics toothache 4 years old deltasone full prescribing information orlistat panvel composition of misoprostol enough for abortion aciclovir crema fiterman levofloxacin ppt luvox reviews amitriptyline side effects and pregnancy xenical capsule 120mg seller in bangladesh can a pregnant woman take flagyl 400mg how to wean off 5mg of prednisone with injection plavix and fluconazole interaction tratamento aciclovir catapora herb viagra green box side effects can terbinafine be taken with grapefruit flagyl lunesta viagra debeka escitalopram confusion and memory loss skin allergy to bactrim free sample of viagra generic for nexium 40 mg levothyroxine dosage weight loss luvox cost without insurance keep getting viagra emails 40 mg prednisone kids ibd lisinopril vasoconstriction propecia when to expect results pediatric propranolol dosage atenolol for tenormin gabapentin 300 mg vaistai dexamethasone 4mg tab roxa can cytotec be bought over counter in south africa lino allegra amoxicillin clavulanate extended release is ventolin an maoi amoxicillin store fridge sildenafil citrate vigora 50 fluconazole cena dublin image of acyclovir tabointment can u give amoxicillin tablets to dog for kennel cough substitute erythromycin eye ointment priapismo e viagra neurontin for diabetic nerve pain bupropiona 60 comprimidos cialis and roxy what is the dosage of flagyl to treat scabies methylcobalamin with gabapentin tablets cymbalta 30 effetti collaterali misoprostol puede causar esterilidad i want buy viagra irbesartan 100mg buy can cialis elevate psa viagra multiple cum zithromax substitute over the counter nifedipine and labetalol pregnancy how long does liquid augmentin last cephalexin vs ciprofloxacin for uti epididimytis xenical no prescription australia lisinopril hctz dosage strengths captopril et hydrochlorothiazide image lasix 12.5 mg what to avoid while taking bactrim buy zithromax online overseas amitriptyline 5 mg for cats amoxicillin clavulanic acid composition comprar viagra online en argentina cyproheptadine appetizer bfp after reducing clomid dose diet while taking synthroid lexapro pvc escitalopram oxalato 12.77 mg amoxicillin use in sinusitis viagra price for 1pcs warfarin reversal uk guidelines metformin makes me throw up avodart tylenol dr. reddy propecia for sale prednisone 5mg dose pack directions for 12 days taking non prescribed amoxicillin is 9000 mg of seroquel a fayal dose kefzol and keflex metformin effects on lipids what liquid to take with tamsulosin hcl 0.4 mg capsule finasteride oral uses zithromax drops composition viagra college men buy levitra generic india viagra effects on exercise over the counter alternative for plavix doxycycline hyclate 100mg pimples ked reithelm allegra ch dose maximale augmentin allergic reaction ciprofloxacin case report erythromycin akne erfahrung augmentin antibiotico per ascessi celexa dosage change side effects generic viagra 100mg review dexamethasone sodium poshpate adalah lamictal et abilify finasteride 50 side effects first starting zoloft azithromycin tablets usp 250 mg para embarazadas prednisone dose pack uses disulfiram 250 mg price amlodipine besylate and kidney stones erythromycin 3 benzoyl peroxide 5 zyprexa und nebenwirkung prednisone dose in encephalitis glucophage xr jak dziala is ventolin ok when pregnancy does ketoconazole cream needs a prescription finasteride 5 mg tabletas orlistat sua composi? robaxin 500mg vs neurontin 300mg tetracycline during pregnancy teeth ciprofloxacino normon 250 mg efg montelukast genven walgreens vs cvs cialis suver?nitet principen dosage of amoxicillin tablet for 13 yr old tamsulosin hexal 0.4 septran ds packing was kostet sildenafil sandoz pamelor and flexeril aap with lexapro taking celexa with vicodin albuterol with afib augmentin 875 dosage for uti does prednisone contain aspirin albuterol aerochamber norway approval date of linezolide hcg zoloft mix seroquel fda symptoms of synthroid 150 mcg overdose viagra es adictivo ventolin vs proventil vs albuterol missed two days of zoloft sildenafil 100mg street price cymbalta weight gain fluconazole antifungal tablets single dose packaging lexapro hotline phone number zovirax 5 cr?me tube de 10g allegra vs claritin zyrtec el flagyl sirve para la leishmaniosis viagra und sport ciproxin e prurito anale thuoc biet duoc griseofulvin montelukast 10 mg reviews what happens if you push lasix to fast can isotretinoin delay periods thuoc singulair 20mg onset and duration of zithromax is amoxicillin available over the counter in thailand how long does amlodipine stay in your system confusion amoxicillin 250 mg dosage kids in ml which is the best viagra or cialis cipro vacanze ragazze cialis and smoking pot lipitor tabs 20mg harga ketoconazole tablet untuk panu can cats overdose on amoxicillin using viagra to masturbate cost of singulair 4mg pastillas cytotec donde comprar bogota losartan atorvastatin get online viagra prescription sildenafil use for lipitor rare side effects brachytherapy and tamsulosin propecia generic best price viagra made in ireland topamax reviews migraine can you take celecoxib with kidney stones amoxicillin and diarrhea in dogs can you give levitra to women

Death Penalty Clarification Needed

The trial and punishment of Saddam might well be a clarifying moment for Catholic teaching.
by Father Raymond J. de Souza | Source:
The worldwide coverage given to Cardinal Renato Martino’s remarks on Saddam Hussein and the death penalty has revealed the need for a clarification of the Church’s teaching on the death penalty.

Cardinal Martino, president of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, has a reputation for rhetorical extravagance that sometimes exceeds the bounds of theological precision.

Nevertheless, at a press conference a few days after the capture of Saddam, he gave the impression that Catholic teaching would oppose the execution of the Iraqi dictator. Many international news outlets reported that Pope John Paul II himself was opposed to Saddam’s possible execution.

Is it the case that the Catholic Church is against all recourse to capital punishment, even for cases such as Saddam’s? Cardinal Martino at least implied as much. The Holy Father’s many statements and requests for clemency for death-row inmates seem to confirm that implication.

Yet the matter remains ambiguous.

As all knowledgeable commentators recognize, the Church teaches that the state has the right to administer capital punishment — an ancient teaching embraced by the full breadth of Catholic tradition. Yet John Paul and, following him, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, have indicated that the death penalty should not be used. The bishops of Canada and the United States have also made this teaching their own.

The ambiguity in need of clarification lies in the arguments the Holy Father proposed in No. 56 of the 1995 encyclical Evangelium Vitae (The Gospel of Life), which were later inserted into the definitive edition of the Catechism, in Nos. 2266 and 2267.

“Legitimate public authority has the right and duty to inflict punishment proportionate to the gravity of the offense,” the Catechism says in No. 2266 on penalties in general. “Punishment has the primary aim of redressing the disorder introduced by the offense.”

Traditionally, the death penalty has been justified on those grounds — namely, that some crimes are so heinous that the only proportionate punishment that would redress the injustice suffered would be execution.

A secondary argument in favor of the death penalty was that it would ensure public safety by preventing the criminal from committing further crimes.

“The Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor,” the Catechism says in No. 2267. “If, however, nonlethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people’s safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means. … Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities that the state has for effectively preventing crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm — without definitely taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself — the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity are very rare, if not practically nonexistent.”

It is the Church’s clear teaching that if it is possible to keep society safe without the death penalty, then the death penalty should not be used.

Yet nothing is said in the Catechism about the first reason for the death penalty — the proportionate penalty aimed at redressing the disorder. Observing the Holy Father’s repeated statements and requests for clemency, it seems he does not think the first reason justifies the death penalty. But he has never said as much, and saying so would be difficult to square with the Catholic tradition. So the matter has been left deliberately ambiguous, with the Church appearing to be against all executions for stated reasons that do not address all the reasons for which executions are done.

Saddam’s notoriety will make this ambiguity harder to maintain. If the primary reason for capital punishment is still valid — proportionate punishment — it is clear that his crimes merit the death penalty. If the Church judges otherwise, she will have, in effect, resolved the current ambiguity in her teaching by stating, in effect, that no crime merits the death penalty as proportionate punishment.

Saddam also puts the Catechism’s teaching to the test on the secondary reason — public safety. The Catechism explicitly teaches that public safety is a permissible reason for execution if no other means would ensure public safety. In effect, the current Catholic teaching is that the death penalty would be more permissible in the Congo, for example, where public security measures are not as sophisticated as, for example, in Belgium.

An imprisoned Saddam in an Iraq still under reconstruction would likely pose a threat to public safety. His loyalists might attempt to raid the prison to free him in the first months of shaky Iraqi sovereignty. Allowed visitors for humanitarian reasons, Saddam might use them to direct further violence, as Mafia bosses continue to run their families from prison. In short, the public-safety considerations in the Catechism would allow for Saddam’s execution.

If the Church nevertheless opposes Saddam’s execution on public-safety grounds, too, then it would appear the criteria in the Catechism do not apply in practice and that states should never have recourse to the death penalty. “Practically nonexistent” would then have to be read as simply “nonexistent.”

The trial and punishment of Saddam might well be a clarifying moment for Catholic teaching.

Father Raymond J. de Souza is a chaplain at Queens College in Kingstown, Ontario.

Reprinted with permission from the National Catholic Register, Jan. 4-10, 2004. All rights reserved.

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular