|Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS)|
Adolescents have STDS very often. A recent report by the Alan Guttmacher Institute reproduced in The New York Times (March 31, 93) states that the incidence of STDS in the United States is 12 millions of new cases per year and, of these, 3 million, 25%, are given in people under 25 years of age. STDS disproportionately affects women, producing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility and ectopic pregnancies, and making these women much more susceptible to AIDS. According to William R. Archer, "one in three sexually active adolescents will acquire an STD before graduating from High School". (47) and McCray states: "People with an STD who produce genital or anal ulcerations (syphilis, soft canker, herpes simplex) may, for biological reasons, have a higher risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection". (48) To complicate things, 80% of these patients do not know that they have STDs and can transmit them without realizing it. (49) and teens who use drugs, are sexually promiscuous or perform intercourse are especially susceptible to STD and HIV. (50)
Condoms do not provide good protection against STDS. The official CDC publication, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review (MMWR) states: "Abstinence and sexual intercourse with an uninfected and mutually faithful partner are the only fully effective prevention strategies. The proper use of condoms during any sexual relationship can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of STDS. People who are likely to get infected or know that they are infected with HIV should be aware that condom use cannot eliminate the risk of transmission for them or others... Condoms may offer less protection because there are areas of skin not covered by the condom that may be infectious or vulnerable to infection. The actual effectiveness of condom use in STD prevention is more difficult to assess. Condoms are not always effective in preventing STD". (4) and Cates, in Family practice perspectives, makes things even more difficult to assess: "controlled studies of condom protection against STD made with women provide less convincing evidence than research Made with Men. " In the same study, it does not find any difference in the prevalence of Chlamydia infection between the condom and non-use group. (51) and Samuels found that university student condom users had an infection rate of 35.7%, and non-users of 37%, a difference that is not statistically significant. (52)
Condoms provide particularly poor protection against the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV), some of whose strains are associated with cervical cancer. Disseminated cervical cancer has recently been added to the definition of AIDS. Cates cites a Finnish study in which condoms had no use for HPV protection against cervical infections (51), and Dr. Richart, director of Gynecological Pathology at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, in an interview at Oncology Times, declared that 20% of infected men have HPV lesions in sites other than the penis, many of them extremely difficult to see but infectious. It appears that 20% of women between the ages of 14 and 18 are already infected by HPV, and three out of four have strains of the virus associated with neck cancer. (53) and Dr. Dervin, at the annual Family Medicine Review, sponsored by the San Francisco School of Medicine, University of California, underlined that HPV infection is a regional disease rather than localized, and is not susceptible to control with measures such as condoms. (54)
Condoms and STDs are problematic not only because of their pathology, as we have summarized above, but also by the fact that STDs facilitate the sexual transmission of HIV. This occurs not only through skin lesions or mucous membranes but also by a cellular inflammatory response, which includes cells very infected by the virus.